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Image-Guided Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Transvalvular Hemodynamics: Quantifying the Effects of Varying Aortic Valve Leaflet Thickness

1
Department of Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology, University of Minnesota, St Paul, MN 55108, USA
2
Department of Radiology and Bioengineering Children’s Hospital Colorado, University of Colorado, Denver, CO 80045, USA
3
Department of Civil, Environmental and Geo—Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
4
College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Fluids 2019, 4(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids4030119
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 29 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cardiovascular Flows)
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Abstract

When flow-induced forces are altered at the blood vessel, maladaptive remodeling can occur. One reason such remodeling may occur has to do with the abnormal functioning of the aortic heart valve due to disease, calcification, injury, or an improperly-designed prosthetic valve, which restricts the opening of the valve leaflets and drastically alters the hemodynamics in the ascending aorta. While the specifics underlying the fundamental mechanisms leading to changes in heart valve function may differ from one cause to another, one common and important change is in leaflet stiffness and/or mass. Here, we examine the link between valve stiffness and mass and the hemodynamic environment in aorta by coupling magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high-resolution fluid–structure interaction (FSI) computational fluid dynamics to simulate blood flow in a patient-specific model. The thoracic aorta and a native aortic valve were re-constructed in the FSI model from the MRI data and used for the simulations. The effect of valve stiffness and mass is parametrically investigated by varying the thickness (h) of the leaflets (h = 0.6, 2, 4 mm). The FSI simulations were designed to investigate systematically progressively higher levels of valve stiffness by increasing valve thickness and quantifying hemodynamic parameters known to be linked to aortopathy and valve disease. The computed results reveal dramatic differences in all hemodynamic parameters: (1) the geometric orifice area (GOA), (2) the maximum velocity V max of the jet passing through the aortic orifice area, (3) the rate of energy dissipation E ˙ diss ( t ) , (4) the total loss of energy E diss , (5) the kinetic energy of the blood flow E kin ( t ) , and (6) the average magnitude of vorticity Ω a ( t ) , illustrating the change in hemodynamics that occur due to the presence of aortic valve stenosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: aortic valve; immersed boundary method; fluid–structure interaction; magnetic resonance imaging aortic valve; immersed boundary method; fluid–structure interaction; magnetic resonance imaging
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gilmanov, A.; Barker, A.; Stolarski, H.; Sotiropoulos, F. Image-Guided Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation of Transvalvular Hemodynamics: Quantifying the Effects of Varying Aortic Valve Leaflet Thickness. Fluids 2019, 4, 119.

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