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The Impact of Gene Dosage and Heterozygosity on the Diploid Pathobiont Candida albicans

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
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J. Fungi 2020, 6(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof6010010
Received: 29 November 2019 / Revised: 14 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Candidiasis)
Candida albicans is a fungal species that can colonize multiple niches in the human host where it can grow either as a commensal or as an opportunistic pathogen. The genome of C. albicans has long been of considerable interest, given that it is highly plastic and can undergo a wide variety of alterations. These changes play a fundamental role in determining C. albicans traits and have been shown to enable adaptation both to the host and to antifungal drugs. C. albicans isolates contain a heterozygous diploid genome that displays variation from the level of single nucleotides to largescale rearrangements and aneuploidy. The heterozygous nature of the genome is now increasingly recognized as being central to C. albicans biology, as the relative fitness of isolates has been shown to correlate with higher levels of overall heterozygosity. Moreover, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events can arise frequently, either at single polymorphisms or at a chromosomal level, and both can alter the behavior of C. albicans cells during infection or can modulate drug resistance. In this review, we examine genome plasticity in this pathobiont focusing on how gene dosage variation and loss of heterozygosity events can arise and how these modulate C. albicans behavior. View Full-Text
Keywords: hemizygosity; loss of heterozygosity (LOH), commensalism; virulence; aneuploidy; mitotic recombination; parasexual cycle; drug resistance hemizygosity; loss of heterozygosity (LOH), commensalism; virulence; aneuploidy; mitotic recombination; parasexual cycle; drug resistance
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Liang, S.-H.; Bennett, R.J. The Impact of Gene Dosage and Heterozygosity on the Diploid Pathobiont Candida albicans. J. Fungi 2020, 6, 10.

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