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J. Fungi 2019, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof5020030

Yeast Species in the Oral Cavities of Older People: A Comparison between People Living in Their Own Homes and Those in Rest Homes

Sir John Walsh Research Institute, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand
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Received: 26 February 2019 / Revised: 9 April 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Mycobiome)
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Abstract

Oral candidiasis is prevalent among older people due to predisposing factors such as impaired immune defenses, medications and denture use. An increasing number of older people live in rest home facilities and it is unclear how this institutionalized living affects the quantity and type of fungi colonizing these people’s oral cavities. Smears and swabs of the palate and tongue and saliva samples were taken from participants residing in rest homes (RH; n = 20) and older people living in their own homes (OH; n = 20). Yeast in samples were quantified and identified by culturing on CHROMagar Candida and sequencing the ITS2 region of rDNA. A higher proportion of RH residents had Candida hyphae present in smears compared to OH participants (35% vs. 30%) although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.74). RH residents had, on average, 23 times as many yeast per mL saliva as OH participants (p = 0.01). Seven yeast species were identified in OH samples and only five in RH samples, with Candida albicans and Candida glabrata being the most common species isolated from both participant groups. The results indicate that older people living in aged-care facilities were more likely to have candidiasis and have a higher yeast carriage rate than similarly aged people living at home. This may be due to morbidities which led to the need for residential care and/or related to the rest home environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: oral candidiasis; older people; elderly; rest home; yeast carriage; Candida albicans oral candidiasis; older people; elderly; rest home; yeast carriage; Candida albicans
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Thiyahuddin, N.M.; Lamping, E.; Rich, A.M.; Cannon, R.D. Yeast Species in the Oral Cavities of Older People: A Comparison between People Living in Their Own Homes and Those in Rest Homes. J. Fungi 2019, 5, 30.

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