Visualising the Cardiovascular System of Embryos of Biomedical Model Organisms with High Resolution Episcopic Microscopy (HREM)
Division of Anatomy & MIC, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
The Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, UK
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge CB10 1SA, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2018, 5(4), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcdd5040058
Received: 23 November 2018 / Revised: 9 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Morphology of the Developing and Mature Cardiovascular System)
The article will briefly introduce the high-resolution episcopic microscopy (HREM) technique and will focus on its potential for researching cardiovascular development and remodelling in embryos of biomedical model organisms. It will demonstrate the capacity of HREM for analysing the cardiovascular system of normally developed and genetically or experimentally malformed zebrafish, frog, chick and mouse embryos in the context of the whole specimen and will exemplarily show the possibilities HREM offers for comprehensive visualisation of the vasculature of adult human skin. Finally, it will provide examples of the successful application of HREM for identifying cardiovascular malformations in genetically altered mouse embryos produced in the deciphering the mechanisms of developmental disorders (DMDD) program.