Next Article in Journal
Comparative Pathogenicity of Wildlife and Bovine Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains in Experimentally Inoculated Neonatal Jersey Calves
Previous Article in Journal
A Serological Survey on Swine Brucellosis Using Standard Procedures, Dot Blot, and Western Blot in Finisher Pigs in Central-North Italy
Previous Article in Special Issue
CD147 and Cyclooxygenase Expression in Feline Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 87;

The Safety of an Adjuvanted Autologous Cancer Vaccine Platform in Canine Cancer Patients

Northern Blood Research Laboratory, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital and the Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2065, Australia
School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Gatton, QLD 4343 Australia
Willougby Veterinary Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2068, Australia
Elanora Veterinary Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2101 Australia
Castle Hill Veterinary Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2154, Australia
Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
Flinders University Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
Vaxine Pty Ltd., Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Cancer Immunotherapeutics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1214 KB, uploaded 12 October 2018]   |  


Canine cancer rates are similar to humans, though the therapeutic options might be limited. Inducing a patient’s own immune system to have an anti-tumor response is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. In this safety study, autologous tumor vaccines produced specifically for each canine patient were combined with Advax™, a novel non-inflammatory immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant and were tested for safety in a diverse range of patient presentations alone or in combination with other treatments. Canine patients had their tumor biopsied, debulked or resected and the tumor antigens were processed into an autologous vaccine formulated with Advax™ adjuvant with or without rhizavidin as an additional immune stimulant. Patients treated early in the trial received two intramuscular (IM) doses, 2 weeks apart. As the study progressed and no issues of safety were observed, the protocol was changed to weekly vaccinations for 4 weeks followed by monthly booster shots. Over the 150 I.M injections delivered to date, the vaccine was found to be very safe and no significant adverse reactions were observed. These results justify ongoing development and future controlled studies of this autologous vaccine approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; autologous; canine; adjuvant; Advax™ vaccine; autologous; canine; adjuvant; Advax™

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Weir, C.; Oksa, A.; Millar, J.; Alexander, M.; Kynoch, N.; Walton-Weitz, Z.; Mackenzie-Wood, P.; Tam, F.; Richards, H.; Naylor, R.; Cheng, K.; Bennett, P.; Petrovsky, N.; Allavena, R. The Safety of an Adjuvanted Autologous Cancer Vaccine Platform in Canine Cancer Patients. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 87.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Vet. Sci. EISSN 2306-7381 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top