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Vet. Sci. 2018, 5(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci5040087

The Safety of an Adjuvanted Autologous Cancer Vaccine Platform in Canine Cancer Patients

1
Northern Blood Research Laboratory, Kolling Institute of Medical Research, Royal North Shore Hospital and the Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2065, Australia
2
School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Gatton, QLD 4343 Australia
3
Willougby Veterinary Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2068, Australia
4
Elanora Veterinary Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2101 Australia
5
Castle Hill Veterinary Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2154, Australia
6
Sydney School of Veterinary Science, Faculty of Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
7
Flinders University Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
8
Vaxine Pty Ltd., Bedford Park, Adelaide, SA 5042, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 2 October 2018 / Accepted: 10 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Canine Cancer Immunotherapeutics)
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Abstract

Canine cancer rates are similar to humans, though the therapeutic options might be limited. Inducing a patient’s own immune system to have an anti-tumor response is an attractive approach to cancer therapy. In this safety study, autologous tumor vaccines produced specifically for each canine patient were combined with Advax™, a novel non-inflammatory immunomodulator and vaccine adjuvant and were tested for safety in a diverse range of patient presentations alone or in combination with other treatments. Canine patients had their tumor biopsied, debulked or resected and the tumor antigens were processed into an autologous vaccine formulated with Advax™ adjuvant with or without rhizavidin as an additional immune stimulant. Patients treated early in the trial received two intramuscular (IM) doses, 2 weeks apart. As the study progressed and no issues of safety were observed, the protocol was changed to weekly vaccinations for 4 weeks followed by monthly booster shots. Over the 150 I.M injections delivered to date, the vaccine was found to be very safe and no significant adverse reactions were observed. These results justify ongoing development and future controlled studies of this autologous vaccine approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine; autologous; canine; adjuvant; Advax™ vaccine; autologous; canine; adjuvant; Advax™
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Weir, C.; Oksa, A.; Millar, J.; Alexander, M.; Kynoch, N.; Walton-Weitz, Z.; Mackenzie-Wood, P.; Tam, F.; Richards, H.; Naylor, R.; Cheng, K.; Bennett, P.; Petrovsky, N.; Allavena, R. The Safety of an Adjuvanted Autologous Cancer Vaccine Platform in Canine Cancer Patients. Vet. Sci. 2018, 5, 87.

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