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Medicines, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2022) – 7 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Physical inactivity is a well-known risk factor for a vast array of human pathologies, including cardiovascular disease, heart failure, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, mental health disorders, and migraine, and is also associated with an enhanced risk of developing unfavorable progression of COVID-19. We provide here updated evidence that physical inactivity highly impacts the risk of developing ischemic heart disease and related disabilities, which contribute to a high burden of clinical, social, and economic consequences as well as creating a deleterious loop which ultimately culminates in a further reduction in physical activity. Reinforcing current policies aimed at increasing physical activity engagement within the general population is hence vital. View this paper
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10 pages, 556 KiB  
Article
Zulfiqar Frailty Scale (ZFS): Concordance Study with the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS)
by Abrar-Ahmad Zulfiqar, Léo Martin, Perla Habchi, Delwende Noaga Damien Massimbo, Ibrahima Amadou Dembele and Emmanuel Andres
Medicines 2022, 9(11), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9110058 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1359
Abstract
Introduction: We designed a new scale for the rapid detection of frailty for use in primary care, referred to as the Zulfiqar Frailty Scale (ZFS). Objective: To evaluate the performance of the “ZFS” tool to screen for frailty as defined in the Clinical [...] Read more.
Introduction: We designed a new scale for the rapid detection of frailty for use in primary care, referred to as the Zulfiqar Frailty Scale (ZFS). Objective: To evaluate the performance of the “ZFS” tool to screen for frailty as defined in the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) criteria in an ambulatory population of patients at least 75 years old. Method: A prospective study conducted in Alsace, France, for a duration of 6 months that included patients aged 75 and over was judged to be autonomous with an ADL (Activity of Daily Living) > 4/6. Results: In this ambulatory population of 124 patients with an average age of 79 years, the completion time for our scale was less than two minutes, and the staff required no training beforehand. Sensibility was 67%, while specificity was 87%. The positive predictive value was 80%, and the negative predictive value was 77%. The Youden index was 59.8%. In our study, we have a moderate correlation between CFS and ZFS (r = 0.674 with 95%CI = [0.565; 0.760]; p-value < 2.2 × 10−16 < 0.05). The Pearson correlations between these two geriatric scores were all strong and roughly equivalent to each other. The kappa of Cohen (k) = 0.46 (Unweighted), moderate concordance between the ZFS and CFS scales according to Fleiss classification. Conclusion: The “ZFS” tool makes it possible to screen for frailty with a high level of specificity and positive/negative predictive value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frailty Syndrome in the Elderly: A Real Challenge for Our Society)
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15 pages, 1162 KiB  
Review
The Role of Equilibrium between Free Radicals and Antioxidants in Depression and Bipolar Disorder
by Anastasia Kotzaeroglou and Ioannis Tsamesidis
Medicines 2022, 9(11), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9110057 - 14 Nov 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
Background: Increasing evidence suggests that the presence of oxidative stress and disorders of the antioxidant defense system are involved in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and major depression, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. This review focuses [...] Read more.
Background: Increasing evidence suggests that the presence of oxidative stress and disorders of the antioxidant defense system are involved in a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and major depression, but the exact mechanism remains unknown. This review focuses on a better appreciation of the contribution of oxidative stress to depression and bipolar disorder. Methods: This review was conducted by extracting information from other research and review studies, as well as other meta-analyses, using two search engines, PubMed and Google Scholar. Results: As far as depression is concerned, there is agreement among researchers on the association between oxidative stress and antioxidants. In bipolar disorder, however, most of them observe strong lipid peroxidation in patients, while regarding antioxidant levels, opinions are divided. Nevertheless, in recent years, it seems that on depression, there are mainly meta-analyses and reviews, rather than research studies, unlike on bipolar disorder. Conclusions: Undoubtedly, this review shows that there is an association among oxidative stress, free radicals and antioxidants in both mental disorders, but further research should be performed on the exact role of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Full article
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17 pages, 2274 KiB  
Article
Antidiabetic Actions of Ethanol Extract of Camellia sinensis Leaf Ameliorates Insulin Secretion, Inhibits the DPP-IV Enzyme, Improves Glucose Tolerance, and Increases Active GLP-1 (7–36) Levels in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats
by Prawej Ansari, J. M. A. Hannan, Samara T. Choudhury, Sara S. Islam, Abdullah Talukder, Veronique Seidel and Yasser H. A. Abdel-Wahab
Medicines 2022, 9(11), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9110056 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3013
Abstract
Camellia sinensis (green tea) is used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. In the present study, the insulin-releasing and glucose-lowering effects of the ethanol extract of Camellia sinensis (EECS), along with molecular mechanism/s of action, were investigated in vitro [...] Read more.
Camellia sinensis (green tea) is used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments. In the present study, the insulin-releasing and glucose-lowering effects of the ethanol extract of Camellia sinensis (EECS), along with molecular mechanism/s of action, were investigated in vitro and in vivo. The insulin secretion was measured using clonal pancreatic BRIN BD11 β cells, and mouse islets. In vitro models examined the additional glucose-lowering properties of EECS, and 3T3L1 adipocytes were used to assess glucose uptake and insulin action. Non-toxic doses of EECS increased insulin secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, and this regulatory effect was similar to that of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin release was further enhanced when combined with isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), tolbutamide or 30 mM KCl, but was decreased in the presence of verapamil, diazoxide and Ca2+ chelation. EECS also depolarized the β-cell membrane and elevated intracellular Ca2+, suggesting the involvement of a KATP-dependent pathway. Furthermore, EECS increased glucose uptake and insulin action in 3T3-L1 cells and inhibited dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) enzyme activity, starch digestion and protein glycation in vitro. Oral administration of EECS improved glucose tolerance and plasma insulin as well as inhibited plasma DPP-IV and increased active GLP-1 (7–36) levels in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Flavonoids and other phytochemicals present in EECS could be responsible for these effects. Further research on the mechanism of action of EECS compounds could lead to the development of cost-effective treatments for type 2 diabetes. Full article
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8 pages, 1199 KiB  
Brief Report
Estimating Worldwide Impact of Low Physical Activity on Risk of Developing Ischemic Heart Disease-Related Disability: An Updated Search in the 2019 Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx)
by Giuseppe Lippi, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Camilla Mattiuzzi and Carl J. Lavie
Medicines 2022, 9(11), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9110055 - 03 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3199
Abstract
We provide here updated analysis of the impact of physical inactivity on risk of developing ischemic heart disease (IHD)-related disability along with the latest 10-year progression. We collected data through an electronic search in the 2019 Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx) database using [...] Read more.
We provide here updated analysis of the impact of physical inactivity on risk of developing ischemic heart disease (IHD)-related disability along with the latest 10-year progression. We collected data through an electronic search in the 2019 Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx) database using the keywords “low physical activity”, complemented with the additional epidemiologic variables “disability-adjusted life years” (DALYs; number); “ischemic heart disease”; “socio-demographic index” (SDI); “age”; “sex” and “year”, for calculating volume of DALYs lost due to physical activity (PA)-related disability after IHD (LPA-IHD impairment). Based on this search, the overall LPA-IHD impairment was estimated at 7.6 million DALYs in 2019 (3.9 and 3.7 million DALYs in males and females, respectively), thus representing nearly 50% of all PA-related disabilities. The highest impact of LPA-IHD impairment was observed in middle SDI countries, being the lowest in low SDI countries. The LPA-IHD DALYs increased by 17.5% in both sexes during the past 10 years (19.2% in males, and 15.8% in females, respectively), though this trend was dissimilar among different SDI areas, especially during the past two years. In high and high–middle SDI countries, the LPA-IHD grew during the past 2 years, whilst the trend remained stable or declined in other regions. In conclusion, LPA-IHD impairment remains substantial worldwide, leading the way to reinforce current policies aimed at increasing PA volume in the population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Cardiology and Vascular Disease)
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9 pages, 966 KiB  
Case Report
Postpartum Spinal Cord Infarction: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
by Jung-Lung Hsu, Shy-Chyi Chin, Ming-Huei Cheng, Yih-Ru Wu, Aileen Ro and Long-Sun Ro
Medicines 2022, 9(11), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9110054 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1916
Abstract
Background: Postpartum spinal cord infarction is a very rare disease. Only two cases have been reported in the English literature. Methods: We reported a 26 year old female who received second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine 52 days before delivery. She [...] Read more.
Background: Postpartum spinal cord infarction is a very rare disease. Only two cases have been reported in the English literature. Methods: We reported a 26 year old female who received second doses of the mRNA-1273 vaccine 52 days before delivery. She presented as sudden onset of paraplegia, sensory level, and sphincter incontinence at postpartum period. No history of heparin exposure was noted. Imaging findings confirmed the T10-11 level infarction and her anti–human heparin platelet factor 4 (anti-PF4) antibody was positive. After 7 days of dexamethasone therapy, her paraplegia and urinary incontinence gradually improved. Results: The CT angiography (CTA) of the artery of Adamkiewicz (Aka) showed tandem narrowing, most conspicuous at the T10-11 level, which was presumably due to partial occlusion of the arteriolar lumen. The thoracolumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging with contrast medium showed owl’s eyes sign at the T10 and T11 levels. We compared our case with two other case reports from the literature. Conclusions: Post-partum spinal cord infarction with positive anti-PF4 antibody and relatively thrombocytopenia are the characteristics of our case. Full article
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6 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Current Denture Loss in Geriatric Facilities
by Miki Endo, Nami Nakayama, Miki Yamada, Yosuke Iijima, Shunsuke Hino, Kiyoko Ariya, Norio Horie and Takahiro Kaneko
Medicines 2022, 9(11), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9110053 - 26 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1321
Abstract
Purpose: Denture loss is still being reported as a problem in geriatric facilities, although losses seem less frequent than in the last decade. However, there have been no reports that have examined recent losses of dentures in detail. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Purpose: Denture loss is still being reported as a problem in geriatric facilities, although losses seem less frequent than in the last decade. However, there have been no reports that have examined recent losses of dentures in detail. The aim of this study was to clarify the actual situation of recent denture loss, together with the denture loss rate in Japan. Materials and methods: This retrospective study investigated the number of cases of denture loss, the denture loss rate for denture wearers, and the details of losses in geriatric facilities during the 1-year period from 1 April 2020 to 31 March 2021. Results: Eleven special elderly nursing homes and four group homes participated in this research. The number of residents from each was 315 and 40 and the number of denture wearers was 165 and 33, respectively (p < 0.001). The loss of dentures was found in one case from a special elderly nursing home and in one case from a group home. The loss rate for denture wearers was 1.01% in total, with 0.61% for special elderly nursing homes and 3.03% for group homes, with no significant differences between the two types of facilities. Conclusion: In geriatric facilities in Japan, the current 1-year denture loss rate for denture wearers was 1.01%. This seems to represent a considerable decrease when compared with the previous report. Further, proper denture management and staff efforts appear to have contributed to a reduction in denture loss against a background of promoting oral healthcare. Full article
5 pages, 993 KiB  
Case Report
Deep Vein Thrombosis of the Left Lower Limb in a Sudanese Child with Sickle Cell Disease
by Alam Eldin Musa Mustafa, Niemat Mohammed Tahir, Nur Allah Elnaji Ahmed Mohamed, Adil Abdullah Mohammed and Sara Ismail Mohammed
Medicines 2022, 9(11), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines9110052 - 22 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1729
Abstract
This is a case of an eleven-year-old female Sudanese child, a known Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) patient, who presented with fever, as well as left thigh and leg swelling that was associated with pain and warmness, which was diagnosed as Deep Vein Thrombosis [...] Read more.
This is a case of an eleven-year-old female Sudanese child, a known Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) patient, who presented with fever, as well as left thigh and leg swelling that was associated with pain and warmness, which was diagnosed as Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) of her left lower limb. She had a previous history of admissions to the emergency room, during which she once received blood. The patient was managed by carrying out a basic routine initial laboratory investigation. A Doppler ultrasound scan showed features consistent with DVT. Based on the clinical findings and investigation results, management began by providing the patient with intravenous fluid, analgesia, packed Red Blood Cells (RBCs), intravenous antibiotics, and low-molecular-weight heparin. Further consultations showed that there was no need for vascular surgery or surgical intervention. This case highlights the need for more studies on DVT and Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) complications in children with SCA, so as to develop strategies for diagnosis and management in order to reduce the risk of life-threatening complications of VTE in patients with Sickle Cell Disease SCD. Full article
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