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Medicines, Volume 7, Issue 1 (January 2020) – 6 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between admission serum potassium and one-year [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Medicines in 2019
Medicines 2020, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7010006 - 19 Jan 2020
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Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessCase Report
Gross Hematuria as a Presenting Feature of Posterior Urethral Valves in a Neonate with Normal Antenatal Sonograms
Medicines 2020, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7010005 - 08 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Background: Posterior urethral valves (PUVs) are usually suspected during antenatal sonograms or by postnatal evidence of bilateral hydronephrosis with enlarged bladder. Gross hematuria as an initial manifestation of PUV with a history of normal antenatal sonogram is very rare. Methods: This is a [...] Read more.
Background: Posterior urethral valves (PUVs) are usually suspected during antenatal sonograms or by postnatal evidence of bilateral hydronephrosis with enlarged bladder. Gross hematuria as an initial manifestation of PUV with a history of normal antenatal sonogram is very rare. Methods: This is a retrospective chart study. Results: We describe a nine-day-old male neonate who presented with gross hematuria and was later found to have a urinary tract infection (UTI) and severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The mother apparently had normal antenatal sonograms with no evidence of fetal hydronephrosis. The child did not have postnatal renal bladder sonogram done until gross hematuria occurred at Day 9 of life. Sonogram showed bilateral severe hydronephrosis and hydroureter with enlarged bladder. The patient underwent ablation of the PUVs after initial bladder decompression with indwelling urethral catheterization. His AKI resolved after prompt treatment of UTI and PUV ablation. Conclusions: This report emphasizes the importance of a high index of suspicion for obstructive uropathy in a newborn with gross hematuria irrespective of prenatal sonogram findings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Prurigo Nodularis and Etiologies of Peripheral Neuropathy: Suggesting a Role for Neural Dysregulation in Pathogenesis
Medicines 2020, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7010004 - 08 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Background: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is an intensely pruritic skin condition of considerable morbidity. However, the pathogenesis of PN and its association with underlying neuropathy is unclear. Objective: We sought to investigate the association between PN and etiologies of peripheral neuropathy. Methods [...] Read more.
Background: Prurigo nodularis (PN) is an intensely pruritic skin condition of considerable morbidity. However, the pathogenesis of PN and its association with underlying neuropathy is unclear. Objective: We sought to investigate the association between PN and etiologies of peripheral neuropathy. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of adult patients (≥18-year-old) with PN, AD, and Psoriasis at the Johns Hopkins Health System over a six-year period (January 2013–January 2019) was performed. The strength of association with etiologies of peripheral neuropathy were compared to a control cohort of individuals without PN, as well as those with AD or psoriasis. Results: A total of 1122 patients with PN were compared to 10,390 AD patients, 15,056 patients with psoriasis, and a control cohort of 4,949,017 individuals without PN, with respect to 25 comorbidities associated with peripheral neuropathies. Limitations: Comparisons between peripheral neuropathies and PN represent associations but are not causal relationships. Conclusion: Prurigo nodularis is strongly associated with peripheral neuropathies, suggesting a role for neural dysregulation in pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Treatment of Chronic Pruritus)
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Open AccessProtocol
Can an Open-Label Placebo Be as Effective as a Deceptive Placebo? Methodological Considerations of a Study Protocol
Medicines 2020, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7010003 - 02 Jan 2020
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Abstract
Background: Placebo has been studied for many years and is ever-present in healthcare. In clinical practice, its use is limited by ethical issues raised by the deception entailed by its administration. Objective: To investigate whether, when given detailed information about pain and underlying [...] Read more.
Background: Placebo has been studied for many years and is ever-present in healthcare. In clinical practice, its use is limited by ethical issues raised by the deception entailed by its administration. Objective: To investigate whether, when given detailed information about pain and underlying placebo mechanisms, subjects will have a response similar to that of those subjected to a procedure in which they receive a conventional placebo treatment. Methods: The study is designed as a non-inferiority randomized, parallel with a nested crossover trial. In addition, 126 subjects without any known pathology will be included. They will be randomized into two groups. Each subject will undergo three Cold Pressor Tests (CPT): calibration, condition of interest (deceptive placebo or educated placebo), and control. Our main judgment criterion will be the comparison in pain intensity experienced on the visual analog scale between the two CPTs with placebo conditions. Results: This study will allow us to rule on the non-inferiority of an “educated” placebo compared to a deceptive placebo in the context of an acute painful stimulation. It is another step towards the understanding of open-label placebo and its use in clinical practice. Conclusions: This study has been approved by the ethics committee in France (2017-A01643-50) and registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03934138). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Admission Serum Potassium Levels in Hospitalized Patients and One-Year Mortality
Medicines 2020, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7010002 - 30 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between admission serum potassium and one-year mortality in all adult hospitalized patients. Methods: All adult hospitalized patients who had an admission serum potassium level between the years 2011 and 2013 at a [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between admission serum potassium and one-year mortality in all adult hospitalized patients. Methods: All adult hospitalized patients who had an admission serum potassium level between the years 2011 and 2013 at a tertiary referral hospital were enrolled. End-stage kidney disease patients were excluded. Admission serum potassium was categorized into levels of ≤2.9, 3.0–3.4, 3.5–3.9, 4.0–4.4, 4.5–4.9, 5.0–5.4, and ≥5.5 mEq/L. Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to assess the independent association between admission serum potassium and one-year mortality after hospital admission, using an admission potassium level of 4.0–4.4 mEq/L as the reference group. Results: A total of 73,983 patients with mean admission potassium of 4.2 ± 0.5 mEq/L were studied. Of these, 12.6% died within a year after hospital admission, with the lowest one-year mortality associated with an admission serum potassium of 4.0–4.4 mEq/L. After adjustment for age, sex, race, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), principal diagnosis, comorbidities, medications, acute kidney injury, mechanical ventilation, and other electrolytes at hospital admission, both a low admission serum potassium ≤3.9 mEq/L and elevated admission potassium ≥5.0 mEq/L were significantly associated with an increased risk of one-year mortality, when compared with an admission serum potassium of 4.0–4.4 mEq/L. Subgroup analysis of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease patients showed similar results. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that hypokalemia ≤3.9 mEq/L and hyperkalemia ≥5.0 mEq/L at the time of hospital admission were associated with higher one-year mortality. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comorbidities in Mycosis Fungoides and Racial Differences in Co-Existent Lymphomatoid Papulosis: A Cross-Sectional Study of 580 Patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Center
Medicines 2020, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines7010001 - 26 Dec 2019
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Abstract
Background: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Previous reports have suggested MF is associated with inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, increased cardiovascular risk factors as well as secondary neoplasms. Methods: A cross-sectional study of MF patients seen from 2013 to 2019 [...] Read more.
Background: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Previous reports have suggested MF is associated with inflammatory conditions such as psoriasis, increased cardiovascular risk factors as well as secondary neoplasms. Methods: A cross-sectional study of MF patients seen from 2013 to 2019 was performed. Comorbidities were selected based on the 2015 Medicare report highlighting the most common chronic medical illnesses in the United States. Lifetime comorbidity occurrence in patients with MF were compared with that in patients with atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and patients without MF. Additional analyses were performed with patients sub-stratified by race. Results: Compared to control groups, MF was strongly associated with lymphomatoid papulosis and Hodgkin’s disease, but not significantly associated with lung, breast or colon cancer. Interestingly, the association with lymphomatoid papulosis was observed in Caucasians (CI 1062-4338; p < 0.001) and not African Americans (p = 0.9). Patients with MF had a greater association with congestive heart failure, hypertension (HT) and hyperlipidemia (HLD) compared with the general population. However, they were significantly less likely to have HT and HLD when compared with psoriasis patients (HT CI: 0.6–0.9; p < 0.001, and HLD CI: 0.05–0.07; p < 0.001). MF patients were also significantly less likely to have concomitant vitamin D deficiency compared with atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Our results suggest that the association of MF with lymphomatoid papulosis varies by race. Compared to the general population, hypertension and hyperlipidemia were positively associated with MF, however, these were significantly less likely on comparison to psoriasis. Unlike previously described, vitamin D deficiency was found to be significantly less in patients with MF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis and Treatment of Chronic Pruritus)
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