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Open AccessArticle

An Investigation of Potential Sources of Nutraceuticals from the Niger Delta Areas, Nigeria for Attenuating Oxidative Stress

1
Department of Experimental Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt PMB 5323, Rivers State, Nigeria
2
School of Medicine, University of Nottingham, Royal Derby Hospital Centre, Derby DE22 3DT, UK
3
Department of Animal Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Yenegoa PMB 071, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
4
Department of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura 35516, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2019, 6(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines6010015
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 14 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 20 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant and Anti-aging Action of Plant Polyphenols)
Background: Diets rich in fruits, vegetables, and medicinal plants possess antioxidants potentially capable of mitigating cellular oxidative stress. This study investigated the antioxidant, anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and total phenolic and flavonoids contents (TPC/TFC) of dietary sources traditionally used for memory enhancing in Niger Delta, Nigeria. Methods: Dacroydes edulis methanolic seed extract (DEMSE), Cola lepidota methanolic seed extract (CLMSE), Terminalia catappa methanolic seed extract (TeCMSE), Tricosanthes cucumerina methanolic seed extract (TrCMSE), Tetrapleura tetraptera methanolic seed extract (TTMSE), and defatted Moringa oleifera methanolic seed extract (DMOMSE); Dennettia tripetala methanolic fruit extract (DTMFE), Artocarpus communis methanolic fruit extract (ACMFE), Gnetum africana methanolic leaf extract (GAMLE), Musa paradisiaca methanolic stembark extract (MPMSE), and Mangifera indica methanolic stembark extract (MIMSE) were evaluated for free radical scavenging antioxidant ability using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power capacity (reduction of ferric iron to ferrous iron), AChE inhibitory potential by Ellman assay, and then TPC/TFC contents determined by estimating milli-equivalents of Gallic acid and Quercetin per gram, respectively. Results: The radical scavenging percentages were as follows: MIMSE (58%), MPMSE (50%), TrCMSE (42%), GAMLE (40%), CLMSE (40%), DMOMSE (38%), and DEMFE (37%) relative to β-tocopherol (98%). The highest iron reducing (antioxidant) capacity was by TrCMSE (52%), MIMSE (40%) and GAMLE (38%). Extracts of MIMSE, TrCMSE, DTMFE, TTMSE, and CLMSE exhibited concentration-dependent AChE inhibitory activity (p < 0.05–0.001). At a concentration of 200 µg/mL, the AChE inhibitory activity and IC50 (µg/mL) exhibited by the most potent extracts were: MIMSE (≈50%/111.9), TrCMSE (≈47%/201.2), DTMFE (≈32%/529.9), TTMSE (≈26%/495.4), and CLMSE (≈25%/438.4). The highest TPC were from MIMSE (156.2), TrCMSE (132.65), GAMLE (123.26), and CLMSE (119.63) in mg gallic acid equivalents/g, and for TFC were: MISME (87.35), GAMLE (73.26), ACMFE (69.54), CLMSE (68.35), and TCMSE2 (64.34) mg quercetin equivalents/gram. Conclusions: The results suggest that certain inedible and edible foodstuffs, most notably MIMSE, MPMSE, TrCMSE, GAMLE, and CLMSE may be beneficial to ameliorate the potentially damaging effects of redox stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; antioxidants; memory enhancers; nutraceuticals acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; antioxidants; memory enhancers; nutraceuticals
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Nwidu, L.L.; Alikwe, P.C.N.; Elmorsy, E.; Carter, W.G. An Investigation of Potential Sources of Nutraceuticals from the Niger Delta Areas, Nigeria for Attenuating Oxidative Stress. Medicines 2019, 6, 15.

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