Next Issue
Volume 3, March
Previous Issue
Volume 2, September

Medicines, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2015) – 5 articles , Pages 298-349

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
Article
Chemotaxonomic Characterization and in-Vitro Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of the Leaf Essential Oil of Curcuma longa Grown in Southern Nigeria
Medicines 2015, 2(4), 340-349; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2040340 - 21 Dec 2015
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2408
Abstract
Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used in Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurvedic medicine for many years. Methods: The leaf essential oil of C. longa from southern Nigeria was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was screened [...] Read more.
Curcuma longa (turmeric) has been used in Chinese traditional medicine and Ayurvedic medicine for many years. Methods: The leaf essential oil of C. longa from southern Nigeria was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The essential oil was screened for in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic activities. The major components in C. longa leaf oil were ar-turmerone (63.4%), α-turmerone (13.7%), and β-turmerone (12.6%). A cluster analysis has revealed this to be a new essential oil chemotype of C. longa. The leaf oil showed notable antibacterial activity to Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus, antifungal activity to Aspergillus niger, and cytotoxic activity to Hs 578T (breast tumor) and PC-3 (prostate tumor) cells. The ar-turmerone-rich leaf essential oil of C. longa from Nigeria has shown potent biological activity and therapeutic promise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Article
Compositional Variation and Bioactivity of the Leaf Essential Oil of Montanoa guatemalensis from Monteverde, Costa Rica: A Preliminary Investigation
Medicines 2015, 2(4), 331-339; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2040331 - 24 Nov 2015
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2368
Abstract
Background: Montanoa guatemalensis is a small to medium-sized tree in the Asteraceae that grows in Central America from Mexico south through Costa Rica. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oil of this tree. Methods: The leaf essential oils of M. [...] Read more.
Background: Montanoa guatemalensis is a small to medium-sized tree in the Asteraceae that grows in Central America from Mexico south through Costa Rica. There have been no previous investigations on the essential oil of this tree. Methods: The leaf essential oils of M. guatemalensis were obtained from different individual trees growing in Monteverde, Costa Rica, in two different years, and were analyzed by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. Results: The leaf oils from 2008 were rich in sesquiterpenoids, dominated by α-selinene, β-selinene, and cyclocolorenone, with lesser amounts of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. In contrast, the samples from 2009 showed no α- or β-selinene, but large concentrations of trans-muurola-4(14),5-diene, β-cadinene, and cyclocolorenone, along with greater concentrations of α-pinene and limonene. The leaf oils were screened for cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities and did show selective cytotoxic activity on MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Conclusion: M. guatemalensis leaf oil, rich in cyclocolorenone, α-selinene, and β-selinene, showed selective in vitro cytotoxic activity to MDA-MB-231 cells. The plant may be a good source of cyclocolorenone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Essential Oils: Chemistry and Bioactivity)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

Editorial
Editorial for Special Issue on Herbal Medicines and Natural Products
Medicines 2015, 2(4), 328-330; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2040328 - 16 Nov 2015
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Herbal medicines and natural products have been the most productive source of drug development and there is a large line of evidence on the applications of herbal medicines and natural products for the management of body function and the treatment of aliments. The [...] Read more.
Herbal medicines and natural products have been the most productive source of drug development and there is a large line of evidence on the applications of herbal medicines and natural products for the management of body function and the treatment of aliments. The multiple bioactive components in herbal medicines and natural products can explain the multiple targets effect in their medical applications. The increasing usage of state-of-art computational, molecular biological, and analytical chemistry techniques will promote the exploration of the pharmacological effect of previously inaccessible sources of herbal medicines and natural products. Notably, with the increasing reports on the safety issues regarding the medical use of herbal medicines and natural products, the awareness of pharmacovigilance in herbal medicines and natural products needs to be strengthened. To prevent the adverse drug reactions related to herbal medicines and natural products, physicians need to be aware of potential risks and alert patients in the use of herbal medicines and natural products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Natural Products)
Review
Exosomes: Potential in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy
Medicines 2015, 2(4), 310-327; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2040310 - 02 Nov 2015
Cited by 47 | Viewed by 4219
Abstract
Exosomes are membrane-bound, intercellular communication shuttles that are defined by their endocytic origin and size range of 30–140 nm. Secreted by nearly all mammalian cell types and present in myriad bodily fluids, exosomes confer messages between cells, proximal and distal, by transporting biofunctional [...] Read more.
Exosomes are membrane-bound, intercellular communication shuttles that are defined by their endocytic origin and size range of 30–140 nm. Secreted by nearly all mammalian cell types and present in myriad bodily fluids, exosomes confer messages between cells, proximal and distal, by transporting biofunctional cargo in the form of proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids. They play a vital role in cellular signaling in both normal physiology and disease states, particularly cancer. Exosomes are powerful progenitors in altering target cell phenotypes, particularly in tumorigenesis and cancer progression, with the ability to alter tumor microenvironments and to assist in establishing the pre-metastatic niche. Many aspects of exosomes present them as novel means to identify cancer biomarkers for early detection and therapeutic targets, and using intrinsic and engineered characteristics of exosomes as therapeutic devices to ameliorate the progression of the disease. This review outlines some of the recent and major findings with regard to exosomes in cancer, and their utilization as therapeutic tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Targeted Therapy in Medicine)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Hypothesis
eMindfulness Therapy—A Study on Efficacy of Blood Pressure and Stress Control Using Mindful Meditation and Eating Apps among People with High Blood Pressure
Medicines 2015, 2(4), 298-309; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines2040298 - 16 Oct 2015
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3149
Abstract
Background: With the increasing availability of Smartphones and wearable tracking devices, it is now feasible and affordable to apply such mobile devices to delivering mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and intermittent fasting (IF) to lower blood pressure, as traditional MBSR and IF incur the [...] Read more.
Background: With the increasing availability of Smartphones and wearable tracking devices, it is now feasible and affordable to apply such mobile devices to delivering mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and intermittent fasting (IF) to lower blood pressure, as traditional MBSR and IF incur the burden of commuting to the intervention sites for the patients. Our study will develop and scientifically evaluate an MBSR app, an IF app and an MBSR + IF app in terms of their effectiveness for lowering blood pressure. We will further explore the possible interaction effect (synergistic effect) between MBSR and IF intervention: will improved mindfulness enhance patients’ adherence to the IF protocol? Methods: We will develop an MBSR app, an IF app, and an MBSR+IF app. We will then conduct an 8-week randomized controlled trial with a factorial design to evaluate the efficacy of these new apps, especially the interaction effect between MBSR and IF. Eligible individuals will be randomly assigned to Group 1 (MBSR app), Group 2 (IF app), Group 3 (MBSR + IF app) or Group 4 (usual care). Discussion: This will be the first attempt to explore the impact of mindfulness intervention on the adherence of a behavioral intervention. Nevertheless, our protocol is limited in that the effectiveness of intermittent fasting on lowering blood pressure has not been supported by large-sample randomized controlled trials. Thus if there is no significant effectiveness we cannot determine whether it is due to the intermittent fasting intervention itself or it is due to the limit of smartphone as a vehicle. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop