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Article

Tris(2-chloroethyl) Phosphate (TCEP) Elicits Hepatotoxicity by Activating Human Cancer Pathway Genes in HepG2 Cells

1
Zoology Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
DNA Research Chair, Zoology Department, College of Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040109
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 12 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 20 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Persistent Organic Pollutants and Human Health)
Tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) is one of the organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) used in consumer commodities and have been detected in human body fluids. Research on TCEP-induced transcriptomic alterations and toxicological consequences in liver cells is still lacking. Herein, human hepatocellular (HepG2) cells were treated with 100, 200, and 400 μM TCEP for 3 days to quantify hepatotoxicity by MTT, NRU, and comet assays. Apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), oxidative stress, and Ca2+ influx were measured by flow cytometry. A qPCR array was employed for transcriptomic analysis. MTT and NRU data showed 70.92% and 75.57% reduction in cell survival at 400 μM. In addition, 20-fold greater DNA damage was recorded at 400 μM. Cell cycle data showed 65.96% subG1 apoptotic peak in 400 μM treated cells. An elevated level of oxidative stress, esterase, Ca2+ influx, and ΔΨm dysfunction were recorded in TCEP-treated cells. Out of 84 genes, the qPCR array showed upregulation of 17 genes and downregulation of 10 key genes belonging to human cancer pathways. Our study endorses the fact that TCEP possesses hepatotoxic potential at higher concentrations and prolonged exposure. Hence, TCEP may act as a cancer-inducing entity by provoking the gene network of human cancer pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; TCEP; transcriptome; organophosphorus flame retardants; apoptosis; HepG2 tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate; TCEP; transcriptome; organophosphorus flame retardants; apoptosis; HepG2
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MDPI and ACS Style

M. Al-Salem, A.; Saquib, Q.; Siddiqui, M.A.; Ahmad, J.; Al-Khedhairy, A.A. Tris(2-chloroethyl) Phosphate (TCEP) Elicits Hepatotoxicity by Activating Human Cancer Pathway Genes in HepG2 Cells. Toxics 2020, 8, 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040109

AMA Style

M. Al-Salem A, Saquib Q, Siddiqui MA, Ahmad J, Al-Khedhairy AA. Tris(2-chloroethyl) Phosphate (TCEP) Elicits Hepatotoxicity by Activating Human Cancer Pathway Genes in HepG2 Cells. Toxics. 2020; 8(4):109. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040109

Chicago/Turabian Style

M. Al-Salem, Abdullah, Quaiser Saquib, Maqsood A. Siddiqui, Javed Ahmad, and Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy 2020. "Tris(2-chloroethyl) Phosphate (TCEP) Elicits Hepatotoxicity by Activating Human Cancer Pathway Genes in HepG2 Cells" Toxics 8, no. 4: 109. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8040109

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