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Open AccessArticle

Lactational Transfer of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Mice: A Method to Directly Collect Milk and Evaluate Chemical Transferability

1
Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto 606-8501, Japan
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Daiichi University of Pharmacy, Fukuoka 815-8511, Japan
3
Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie 514-8507, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020023
Received: 15 February 2020 / Revised: 5 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Persistent Organic Pollutants and Human Health)
Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, C8), are a group of industrial chemicals that are detected in the serum of people throughout the world. Long-chain PFCAs (C9 to C13) have high lipophilicity, therefore they may have a high transfer rate to breast milk. This study investigated the lactational transfer of PFCAs with carbon chain lengths of 8 to 13 in mice. Lactating dams were given a single intravenous administration of PFCAs (C8 to C13) during the postnatal period (8–13 days after delivery). Milk was collected from the dam 24 h after administration using a milking device built in-house. Plasma was obtained from the dam at the same time as milk collection. The observed milk/plasma (M/P) concentration ratios were 0.32 for C8, 0.30 for C9, 0.17 for C10, 0.21 for C11, 0.32 for C12, and 0.49 for C13. These results indicate that the M/P concentration ratio is not related to the lipophilicity of PFCAs. However, estimated relative daily intake, an indicator of how much PFCA is transferred from dams to pups per body weight, increased with chain length: 4.16 for C8, 8.98 for C9, 9.35 for C10, 9.51 for C11, 10.20 for C12, and 10.49 for C13, which may be related to the lower clearance of long-chain PFCAs. These results indicate the importance of future risk assessment of long-chain PFCAs. View Full-Text
Keywords: perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids; lactation; neonatal exposure; intake estimation perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids; lactation; neonatal exposure; intake estimation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fujii, Y.; Harada, K.H.; Kobayashi, H.; Haraguchi, K.; Koizumi, A. Lactational Transfer of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Mice: A Method to Directly Collect Milk and Evaluate Chemical Transferability. Toxics 2020, 8, 23.

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