Next Article in Journal
Chemical Constituents Involved in E-Cigarette, or Vaping Product Use-Associated Lung Injury (EVALI)
Next Article in Special Issue
Theoretical Modeling of Oral Glucose Tolerance Tests Guides the Interpretation of the Impact of Perinatal Cadmium Exposure on the Offspring’s Glucose Homeostasis
Previous Article in Journal
Lactational Transfer of Long-Chain Perfluorinated Carboxylic Acids in Mice: A Method to Directly Collect Milk and Evaluate Chemical Transferability
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Comparison of the Nephrotoxicity of Low Doses of Cadmium and Lead
Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Evaluation of the Effects of Cadmium on Endocytic Uptakes of Proteins into Cultured Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells

Laboratory of Molecular Nutrition and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Tokushima 770-8514, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxics 2020, 8(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics8020024
Received: 24 February 2020 / Revised: 29 March 2020 / Accepted: 30 March 2020 / Published: 1 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxic Metals, Chronic Diseases and Related Cancers)
Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant known to cause dysfunctions of the tubular reabsorption of biomolecules in the kidney. Elevated levels of urinary excretion of low-molecular-weight proteins such as β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) have been used as an indicator of Cd-induced renal tubular dysfunctions. However, very few studies have examined the direct effects of Cd on the reabsorption efficiency of proteins using cultured renal cells. Here, we developed an in vitro assay system for quantifying the endocytic uptakes of fluorescent-labeled proteins by flow cytometry in S1 and S2 cells derived from mouse kidney proximal tubules. Endocytic uptakes of fluorescent-labeled albumin, transferrin, β2-MG, and metallothionein into S1 cells were confirmed by fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry. The exposure of S1 and S2 cells to Cd at 1 and 3 µM for 3 days resulted in significant decreases in the uptakes of β2-MG and metallothionein but not in those of albumin or transferrin. These results suggest that Cd affects the tubular reabsorption of low-molecular-weight proteins even at nonlethal concentrations. The in vitro assay system developed in this study to evaluate the endocytic uptakes of proteins may serve as a useful tool for detecting toxicants that cause renal tubular dysfunctions. View Full-Text
Keywords: kidney; endocytosis; β2-microglobulin; metallothionein; flow cytometry; proximal tubule epithelial cells kidney; endocytosis; β2-microglobulin; metallothionein; flow cytometry; proximal tubule epithelial cells
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fujishiro, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Otera, N.; Oka, N.; Jinno, M.; Himeno, S. In Vitro Evaluation of the Effects of Cadmium on Endocytic Uptakes of Proteins into Cultured Proximal Tubule Epithelial Cells. Toxics 2020, 8, 24.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop