Legume proteins can be successfully used in bakery foods, like cookies, to obtain a protein-enriched product. A lupin extract (10 g/100 g) was added to gluten and gluten-free flours from different sources: rice, buckwheat, oat, kamut and spelt. The impact on the physical properties of the dough and cookies was evaluated for the different systems. Rice and buckwheat doughs were 20% firmer and 40% less cohesive than the others. The incorporation of lupin extract had a reduced impact on the shape parameters of the cookies, namely in terms of area and thickness. The texture differed over time and after eight weeks, the oat and buckwheat cookies enriched with lupin extract were significantly firmer than the cookies without lupin. The incorporation of lupin extract induced a certain golden-brown coloring on the cookies, making them more appealing: lightness (L*) values decreased, generally, for the cookies with lupin extract when compared to the controls. The aw
and moisture content values were very low for all samples, suggesting a high stability food product. Hence, the addition of lupin extract brought some technological changes in the dough and cookies in all the flours tested but improved the final product quality which aligns with the trends in the food industry.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited