FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) predicted that the world’s population will reach over 9 billion in 2050. This condition will require an increase of the global food production by 60%. Technology and scientific research in the near future will soon be oriented towards optimizing the limited existing resources, reducing waste, and improving the consumption of sustainable new foods. Jellyfish could be a valid alternative among novel food. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess microbiological, chemical, physical, and allergenic risks associated with jellyfish consumption. Four research strings have been used to assess evidences about these risks. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis) guidelines were applied. Finally, 14 articles were found. Results showed a good level of health safety for jellyfish consumption in terms of its allergenic and microbiological risks. No evidence was found about physical risks. As regards chemical safety, it should be fundamental to carry out a constant monitoring of the water where jellyfish are captured or bred. Periodic checks will be necessary on the finished product, such as the analysis of the aluminum content commonly used during the manufacturing process. The number of publications found was rather small, and further investigation will be necessary to enforce the knowledge on jellyfish consumption by humans.
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