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Open AccessArticle

ACE Inhibitory Properties and Phenolics Profile of Fermented Flours and of Baked and Digested Biscuits from Buckwheat

Department of Chemistry and Biodynamics of Food, Division of Food Sciences, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
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Foods 2020, 9(7), 847; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070847
Received: 16 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Food Digestion)
The angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity and phenolics profile of fermented flours and of baked and digested buckwheat biscuits was studied. The fermentation of buckwheat flour by select lactic acid bacteria (LAB) caused a decrease in ACE inhibitory activity as compared to the non-fermented flour. The baking process significantly reduced the ACE inhibitory activity of biscuits obtained from fermented flours, whereas digestion significantly increased these properties. In non-fermented and fermented flours and buckwheat biscuits before and after in vitro digestion samples, ten phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were found. Highly significant correlations were found between sample concentration of 50% inhibition of ACE (IC50) and total phenolic compounds of fermented flour and biscuits before and after digestion for each applied LAB, thus indicating a link between phenolic compound content and ACE inhibitory activity. In the digested biscuits, the input to ACE inhibitory activity was provided by p-coumaric, sinapic, syringic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids as well as by kaempherol, quercetin, apigenin, and orientin. Therefore, it can be concluded that cumulative action of those phenolic acids and flavonoids released after digestion is responsible, in part, for the bioaccessible ACE inhibitory activity of buckwheat biscuits. View Full-Text
Keywords: buckwheat; fermentation; baking; in vitro digestion; ACE inhibition; phenolic compounds buckwheat; fermentation; baking; in vitro digestion; ACE inhibition; phenolic compounds
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zieliński, H.; Honke, J.; Topolska, J.; Bączek, N.; Piskuła, M.K.; Wiczkowski, W.; Wronkowska, M. ACE Inhibitory Properties and Phenolics Profile of Fermented Flours and of Baked and Digested Biscuits from Buckwheat. Foods 2020, 9, 847.

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