Next Article in Journal
Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Previous Article in Journal
The Toxic Impact of Honey Adulteration: A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Monitoring Viscosity and Total Solids Content of Milk Protein Concentrate Using an Inline Acoustic Flowmeter at Laboratory Scale
Open AccessArticle

Electronic Nose for Monitoring Odor Changes of Lactobacillus Species during Milk Fermentation and Rapid Selection of Probiotic Candidates

1
Department of Measurement and Process Control, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, Somlói út 14–16, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
2
Department of Nutritional Science and Production Technology, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent István University, Guba S. út 40, H-7400 Kaposvár, Hungary
3
ADEXGO Kft., Lapostelki út 13, H-8230 Balatonfüred, Hungary
4
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Food Science, Szent István University, Somlói út 14–16, H-1118 Budapest, Hungary
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(11), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111539
Received: 25 September 2020 / Revised: 16 October 2020 / Accepted: 22 October 2020 / Published: 26 October 2020
Probiotic bacteria have been associated with a unique production of aroma compounds in fermented foods but rapid methods for discriminating between foods containing probiotic, moderately probiotic, or non-probiotic bacteria remain aloof. An electronic nose (e-nose) is a high-sensitivity instrument capable of non-invasive volatile measurements of foods. In our study, we applied the e-nose to differentiate probiotic, moderately probiotic, and non-probiotic Lactobacillus bacteria strains at different fermentation time points (0th, 4th, and 11th) of milk fermentation. The pH of the changing milk medium was monitored with their corresponding increase in microbial cell counts. An e-nose with two gas chromatographic columns was used to develop classification models for the different bacteria groups and time points and to monitor the formation of the aromatic compounds during the fermentation process. Results of the e-nose showed good classification accuracy of the different bacteria groups at the 0th (74.44% for column 1 and 82.78% for column 2), the 4th (89.44% for column 1 and 92.22% for column 2), and the 11th (81.67% for column 1 and 81.67% for column 2) hour of fermentation. The loading vectors of the classification models showed the importance of some specific aroma compounds formed during the fermentation. Results show that aroma monitoring of the fermentation process with the e-nose is a promising and reliable analytical method for the rapid classification of bacteria strains according to their probiotic activity and for the monitoring of aroma changes during the fermentation process. View Full-Text
Keywords: yogurt; gram-positive; biofortification; artificial aroma sensing; chemometric yogurt; gram-positive; biofortification; artificial aroma sensing; chemometric
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Kovacs, Z.; Bodor, Z.; Zinia Zaukuu, J.-L.; Kaszab, T.; Bazar, G.; Tóth, T.; Mohácsi-Farkas, C. Electronic Nose for Monitoring Odor Changes of Lactobacillus Species during Milk Fermentation and Rapid Selection of Probiotic Candidates. Foods 2020, 9, 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111539

AMA Style

Kovacs Z, Bodor Z, Zinia Zaukuu J-L, Kaszab T, Bazar G, Tóth T, Mohácsi-Farkas C. Electronic Nose for Monitoring Odor Changes of Lactobacillus Species during Milk Fermentation and Rapid Selection of Probiotic Candidates. Foods. 2020; 9(11):1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kovacs, Zoltan; Bodor, Zsanett; Zinia Zaukuu, John-Lewis; Kaszab, Timea; Bazar, George; Tóth, Tamás; Mohácsi-Farkas, Csilla. 2020. "Electronic Nose for Monitoring Odor Changes of Lactobacillus Species during Milk Fermentation and Rapid Selection of Probiotic Candidates" Foods 9, no. 11: 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9111539

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop