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Open AccessArticle

The Influence of Steeping Water Change during Malting on the Multi-Toxin Content in Malt

Josip Juraj Strossmayer, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Osijek, Osijek, F. Kuhača 20, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
Institute of Bioanalytics and Agro-Metabolomics, Department for Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad–Lorenz-Straße 20, 3430 Tulln, Austria
Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queens University Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK
Department of Food Technology, University North, University center Koprivnica, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, 48000 Koprivnica, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 478;
Received: 12 September 2019 / Revised: 1 October 2019 / Accepted: 4 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Cereal Crops)
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of steeping water change and Fusarium graminearum contamination level on different multi-toxin types and concentrations in barley malt. Malt samples were subjected to two micromalting regimes—steeping water change and the other with no steeping water change. Malt was contaminated with different F. graminearum contamination levels (0%, 10%, and 20%). The results indicate that malt with higher F. graminearum contamination levels ensured higher concentrations of toxins. Higher fungal metabolite concentrations were determined in samples exposed to freshly-changed steeping water, especially zearalenone and its derivates whose values were three to four times higher than in samples with no water change. Zearalenone-4-sulfate showed four (in 10% contamination) and even thirty times (in 20% contamination) higher concentrations than in samples with no water change. Water change during malting resulted in higher levels of multi-toxins in the final product. View Full-Text
Keywords: barley malt; Fusarium graminearum; malting; multi-toxins; steeping regime barley malt; Fusarium graminearum; malting; multi-toxins; steeping regime
MDPI and ACS Style

Habschied, K.; Krska, R.; Sulyok, M.; Lukinac, J.; Jukić, M.; Šarkanj, B.; Krstanović, V.; Mastanjević, K. The Influence of Steeping Water Change during Malting on the Multi-Toxin Content in Malt. Foods 2019, 8, 478.

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