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Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Sun-, Oven- and Freeze-Dried Ginger Extracts

1
Department of Process and Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(10), 456; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8100456
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 14 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 6 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
The effects of different drying methods, including sun-, oven-, and freeze-drying on the changes in the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubra) rhizome were studied. Sun-, oven-, and freeze-dried ginger showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in phenolic content by 1.79, 1.53, and 1.91-fold; flavonoid content increased by 6.06, 5.27, and 4.90-fold; FRAP increased by 3.95, 3.51, and 3.15-fold; ABTS•+ scavenging activity increased by 2.07, 1.72, and 1.61-fold; and DPPH inhibition increased by 78%, 58%, and 56%, respectively. Dried ginger also exhibited better inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharides-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophage RAW 264.7. The drying process demonstrated a positive effect on the bioactivities of ginger. The sun-dried ginger exhibited the most potent antioxidant properties with the best enhanced anti-inflammatory activity followed by the oven-dried ginger and lastly, the freeze-dried ginger. View Full-Text
Keywords: Halia Bara; functional food; ginger extract; nitric oxide; RAW 264.7 macrophages Halia Bara; functional food; ginger extract; nitric oxide; RAW 264.7 macrophages
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Mustafa, I.; Chin, N.L.; Fakurazi, S.; Palanisamy, A. Comparison of Phytochemicals, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Sun-, Oven- and Freeze-Dried Ginger Extracts. Foods 2019, 8, 456.

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