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Article

Differentiation between Fresh and Thawed Cephalopods Using NIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis

1
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale del Piemonte, Liguria e Valle d’Aosta, Via Bologna 148, 10154 Turin, Italy
2
Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin, Italy
3
Esselunga S.p.A, Via Giambologna 1, 20096 Limito di Pioltello, Milan, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors equally contributed to this work.
The authors equally contributed to this work.
Academic Editors: Angela Di Pinto and Thierry Astruc
Foods 2021, 10(3), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030528
Received: 29 January 2021 / Revised: 25 February 2021 / Accepted: 26 February 2021 / Published: 3 March 2021
The sale of frozen–thawed fish and fish products, labeled as fresh, is currently one of the most common and insidious commercial food frauds. For this reason, the demand of reliable tools to identify the storage conditions is increasing. The present study was performed on two species, commonly sold in large-scale distribution: Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and musky octopus (Eledone spp.). Fifty fresh cephalopod specimens were analyzed at refrigeration temperature (2 ± 2 °C), then frozen at −20 °C for 10 days and finally thawed and analyzed again. The performance of three near-infrared (NIR) instruments in identifying storage conditions were compared: The benchtop NIR Multi Purpose Analyzer (MPA) by Bruker, the portable MicroNIR by VIAVI and the handheld NIR SCiO by Consumer Physics. All collected spectra were processed and analyzed with chemometric methods. The SCiO data were also analyzed using the analytical tools available in the online application provided by the manufacturer to evaluate its performance. NIR spectroscopy, coupled with chemometrics, allowed discriminating between fresh and thawed samples with high accuracy: Cuttlefish between 82.3–94.1%, musky octopus between 91.2–97.1%, global model between 86.8–95.6%. Results show how food frauds could be detected directly in the marketplace, through small, ultra-fast and simplified handheld devices, whereas official control laboratories could use benchtop analytical instruments, coupled with chemometric approaches, to develop accurate and validated methods, suitable for regulatory purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: NIR; cephalopods; freeze-thaw; chemometrics; food fraud; cuttlefish; musky octopus NIR; cephalopods; freeze-thaw; chemometrics; food fraud; cuttlefish; musky octopus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pennisi, F.; Giraudo, A.; Cavallini, N.; Esposito, G.; Merlo, G.; Geobaldo, F.; Acutis, P.L.; Pezzolato, M.; Savorani, F.; Bozzetta, E. Differentiation between Fresh and Thawed Cephalopods Using NIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis. Foods 2021, 10, 528. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030528

AMA Style

Pennisi F, Giraudo A, Cavallini N, Esposito G, Merlo G, Geobaldo F, Acutis PL, Pezzolato M, Savorani F, Bozzetta E. Differentiation between Fresh and Thawed Cephalopods Using NIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis. Foods. 2021; 10(3):528. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pennisi, Francesco, Alessandro Giraudo, Nicola Cavallini, Giovanna Esposito, Gabriele Merlo, Francesco Geobaldo, Pier Luigi Acutis, Marzia Pezzolato, Francesco Savorani, and Elena Bozzetta. 2021. "Differentiation between Fresh and Thawed Cephalopods Using NIR Spectroscopy and Multivariate Data Analysis" Foods 10, no. 3: 528. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030528

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