Next Article in Journal
Establishing SI-Traceability of Nanoparticle Size Values Measured with Line-Start Incremental Centrifugal Liquid Sedimentation
Previous Article in Journal
Advances in Fire Debris Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Biogenic Amines in Traditional Fiore Sardo PDO Sheep Cheese: Assessment, Validation and Application of an RP-HPLC-DAD-UV Method
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Total and Free Fatty Acids Analysis in Milk and Dairy Fat

Lactiker Research Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Paseo de la Universidad 7, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Separations 2019, 6(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations6010014
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 15 February 2019 / Published: 5 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Separation Techniques for Dairy Analysis)
  |  
PDF [1052 KB, uploaded 5 March 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Dairy fat is one of the most complex natural fats because of its fatty acid (FA) composition. Ruminant dairy fat contains more than 400 different FA varying in carbon chain length, and degree, position and configuration of unsaturation. The following article reviews the different methods available to analyze FA (both total and free) in milk and dairy products. The most widely used methodology for separating and analyzing dairy FA is gas chromatography, coupled to a flame ionization detector (CG-FID). Alternatively, gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) is also used. After lipid extraction, total FA (TFA) are commonly converted into their methyl esters (fatty acid methyl esters, FAME) prior to chromatographic analysis. In contrast, free FA (FFA) can be analyzed after conversion to FAME or directly as FFA after extraction from the product. One of the key questions when analyzing FAME from TFA is the selection of a proper column for separating them, which depends mainly on the objective of the analysis. Quantification is best achieved by the internal standard method. Recently, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), Raman spectroscopy (RS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) have been reported as promising techniques to analyze FA in milk and dairy products. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk fat; dairy fat; total fatty acids; free fatty acids; FAME; GC-FID; GC columns milk fat; dairy fat; total fatty acids; free fatty acids; FAME; GC-FID; GC columns
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Amores, G.; Virto, M. Total and Free Fatty Acids Analysis in Milk and Dairy Fat. Separations 2019, 6, 14.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Separations EISSN 2297-8739 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top