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Article

Polyphenol Content and Biological Activities of Ruta graveolens L. and Artemisia abrotanum L. in Northern Saudi Arabia

1
Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agricultural Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
2
Floriculture, Ornamental Horticulture, and Garden Design Department, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
3
Department of Geography, Environmental Management, and Energy Studies, University of Johannesburg, APK Campus, Johannesburg 2006, South Africa
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Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Medical College, Jagiellonian University, ul. Medyczna 9, 30-688 Kraków, Poland
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Precision Agriculture Laboratory, Department of Pomology, Faculty of Agriculture (El-Shatby), Alexandria University, Alexandria 21545, Egypt
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Department of Food Industries, Faculty of Agriculture, Damietta University, Damietta 34517, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(5), 531; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050531
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 28 April 2020 / Accepted: 28 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extraction Optimization Processes of Antioxidants)
Natural populations of Ruta graveolens L. and Artemisia abrotanum L. in northern Saudi Arabia may be a rich source of natural polyphenols with potential biological activities. Therefore, tentative high-performance liquid chromatography–diode array detection was used to analyze the polyphenol contents of leaf extracts. R. graveolens mainly contained the phenolic acids chlorogenic acid and p-coumaric acid and the flavonoids rutoside and quercetin, whereas those of A. abrotanum mainly contained the phenolic acids isochlorogenic acid and rosmarinic acid and the flavonoid quercetin. Leaf extracts of both species showed antioxidant activities due to the presence of quercetin, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid as well as antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities against cancer cells, which may be attributed to necrotic cell accumulation during the early and late apoptotic periods. Both species also exhibited antibacterial activity, although the activity was higher in R. graveolens due to the high contents of quercetin and other polyphenols. Finally, both species exhibited antifungal activities, which were associated with specific polyphenols. This is the first study to confirm the richness of polyphenols and wide spectrum of biological activities in natural populations of R. graveolens and A. abrotanum in northern Saudi Arabia. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ruta graveolens; Artemisia abrotanum; leaf extract; phenolic acids; flavonoids; antiproliferative; cytotoxicity; antioxidant; antibacterial; antifungal Ruta graveolens; Artemisia abrotanum; leaf extract; phenolic acids; flavonoids; antiproliferative; cytotoxicity; antioxidant; antibacterial; antifungal
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MDPI and ACS Style

Elansary, H.O.; Szopa, A.; Kubica, P.; Ekiert, H.; El-Ansary, D.O.; A. Al-Mana, F.; Mahmoud, E.A. Polyphenol Content and Biological Activities of Ruta graveolens L. and Artemisia abrotanum L. in Northern Saudi Arabia. Processes 2020, 8, 531. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050531

AMA Style

Elansary HO, Szopa A, Kubica P, Ekiert H, El-Ansary DO, A. Al-Mana F, Mahmoud EA. Polyphenol Content and Biological Activities of Ruta graveolens L. and Artemisia abrotanum L. in Northern Saudi Arabia. Processes. 2020; 8(5):531. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050531

Chicago/Turabian Style

Elansary, Hosam O., Agnieszka Szopa, Paweł Kubica, Halina Ekiert, Diaa O. El-Ansary, Fahed A. Al-Mana, and Eman A. Mahmoud. 2020. "Polyphenol Content and Biological Activities of Ruta graveolens L. and Artemisia abrotanum L. in Northern Saudi Arabia" Processes 8, no. 5: 531. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8050531

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