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Open AccessArticle

In-Situ Yeast Fermentation Medium in Fortifying Protein and Lipid Accumulations in the Harvested Larval Biomass of Black Soldier Fly

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Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, HICoE-Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Centre of Urban Resource Sustainability, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia, Broga Road, Semenyih 43500, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Tamkang University, Tamsui, New Taipei City 251, Taiwan
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Faculty of Bioengineering and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Jeli Campus, Jeli 17600, Malaysia
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Chemical Engineering Discipline, School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
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Monash-Industry Palm Oil Education and Research Platform (MIPO), School of Engineering, Monash University, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical Engineering, HICoE-Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Malaysia
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Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(3), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030337
Received: 2 January 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 14 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Technologies: Bridging Conventional Practices and Industry 4.0)
Recently, worldwide researchers have been focusing on exploiting of black soldier fly larval (BSFL) biomass to serve as the feed mediums for farmed animals, including aquaculture farming, in order to assuage the rising demands for protein sources. In this study, yeast was introduced into coconut endosperm waste (CEW) whilst serving as the feeding medium to rear BSFL in simultaneously performed in situ fermentation. It was found that at a 2.5 wt% yeast concentration, the total biomass gained, growth rate and rearing time were improved to 1.145 g, 0.085 g/day and 13.5 days, respectively. In terms of solid waste reduction, the inoculation of yeast over 0.5 wt% in CEW was able to achieve more than 50% overall degradation, with the waste reduction indexes (WRIs) ranging from 0.038 to 0.040 g/day. Disregarding the concentration of yeast introduced, the protein productivity from 20 BSFL was enhanced from only 0.018 g/day (the control) to 0.025 g/day with the presence of yeast at arbitrary concentrations. On the other hand, the larval protein yield was fortified from the control (28%) to a highest value of 35% with the presence of a mere 0.02 wt% yeast concentration. To summarize, the inclusion of a minimal amount of yeast into CEW for in situ fermentation ultimately enhanced the growth of BSFL, as well as its protein yield and productivity. View Full-Text
Keywords: black soldier fly; yeast; fermentation; protein; larvae; organic waste; coconut endosperm waste black soldier fly; yeast; fermentation; protein; larvae; organic waste; coconut endosperm waste
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Wong, C.Y.; Ho, Y.C.; Lim, J.W.; Show, P.L.; Chong, S.; Chan, Y.J.; Ho, C.D.; Mohamad, M.; Wu, T.Y.; Lam, M.K.; Pan, G.T. In-Situ Yeast Fermentation Medium in Fortifying Protein and Lipid Accumulations in the Harvested Larval Biomass of Black Soldier Fly. Processes 2020, 8, 337.

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