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An Overview of the Biolubricant Production Process: Challenges and Future Perspectives

1
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Cristalografía y Mineralogía, Campus de Teatinos, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Málaga, 29071 Málaga, Spain
2
Campus de Sobral, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Bl.1, Sobral, CE 62.010-560, Brazil
3
Grupo de Pesquisa em Separações por Adsorção, Departamento de Engenharia Química, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Bl. 709, Fortaleza, CE 60.455-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Processes 2020, 8(3), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030257
Received: 24 January 2020 / Revised: 8 February 2020 / Accepted: 19 February 2020 / Published: 25 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Catalysis Processes Based on Biomass)
The term biolubricant applies to all lubricants that are easily biodegradable and non-toxic to humans and the environment. The uses of biolubricant are still very limited when compared to those of mineral oils, although this trend is increasing and depends on investment in research and development (R&D). The increase in demand for biodegradable lubricants is related to the evolution of environmental regulations, with more restrictive rules being implemented to minimize environmental impact caused by inappropriate disposal. This study provides an overview of the types, production routes, properties, and applications of biolubricants. Biolubricants are classified as either natural or synthetic oils according to chemical composition. Natural oils are of animal or vegetable origin and are rarely used because they are unstable at high temperatures and form compounds that are harmful to equipment and machines. Synthetic oils are obtained from chemical reactions and are the best lubricants for demanding applications. They are obtained by various routes, mainly by obtaining straight or branched-chain monoesters, diesters, triesters, and polyol esters from vegetable oils. The conversion of triglyceride to esters can be followed or preceded by one or more reactions to improve reactions such as epoxidation and hydrogenation. View Full-Text
Keywords: biolubricant; vegetable oil; chemical modification; physicochemical properties; applications; future perspective biolubricant; vegetable oil; chemical modification; physicochemical properties; applications; future perspective
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cecilia, J.A.; Ballesteros Plata, D.; Alves Saboya, R.M.; Tavares de Luna, F.M.; Cavalcante, C.L., Jr.; Rodríguez-Castellón, E. An Overview of the Biolubricant Production Process: Challenges and Future Perspectives. Processes 2020, 8, 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030257

AMA Style

Cecilia JA, Ballesteros Plata D, Alves Saboya RM, Tavares de Luna FM, Cavalcante CL Jr., Rodríguez-Castellón E. An Overview of the Biolubricant Production Process: Challenges and Future Perspectives. Processes. 2020; 8(3):257. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030257

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cecilia, Juan A.; Ballesteros Plata, Daniel; Alves Saboya, Rosana M.; Tavares de Luna, Francisco M.; Cavalcante, Celio L., Jr.; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique. 2020. "An Overview of the Biolubricant Production Process: Challenges and Future Perspectives" Processes 8, no. 3: 257. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr8030257

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