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Processes 2018, 6(10), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr6100203

Geotechnical Properties of Effluent-Contaminated Cohesive Soils and Their Stabilization Using Industrial By-Products

1
Birudo Engineers, 107/C, PAF Officers Colony, Lahore 54810, Pakistan
2
Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Lahore 54890, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Flow in Fractured Porous Media)
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Abstract

The unchecked and unnoticed disposal of industrial leachates is a common malpractice in developing countries. Untreated effluents from industries drastically deteriorate the soil, altering nearly all of its characteristics. An increase in urbanization has led to construction on these deteriorated lands. In this study, the chemical impact of two industrial effluents, dyeing (acidic) and tannery (basic), is studied on two cohesive soils, i.e., high plastic clay (CH) and low plastic clay (CL). Properties such as liquid limit, plasticity index, specific gravity, maximum dry density, unconfined compressive strength, swell potential, swell pressure, and compression indices decrease with effluent contamination, with the exception of the basic effluent, for which the trend changes after a certain percentage. This study also examines the time variation of properties at different effluent percentages, finding that unconfined compressive strength of both soils increases with time upon dyeing (acidic) contamination and decreases with tannery (basic). The stabilizing effect of two industrial by-products, i.e., marble dust and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) have been evaluated. Unlike their proven positive effect on uncontaminated soils, these industrial by-products did not show any significant stabilization effect on leachate-contaminated cohesive soils, thereby emphasizing the need to utilize special remediation measures for effluent treated soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: effluents; soil properties; cohesive soils; contamination; time variation; stabilization effluents; soil properties; cohesive soils; contamination; time variation; stabilization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Irfan, M.; Chen, Y.; Ali, M.; Abrar, M.; Qadri, A.; Bhutta, O. Geotechnical Properties of Effluent-Contaminated Cohesive Soils and Their Stabilization Using Industrial By-Products. Processes 2018, 6, 203.

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