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Proteomes, Volume 12, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 6 articles

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15 pages, 2884 KiB  
Perspective
Puzzle of Proteoform Variety—Where Is a Key?
by Stanislav Naryzhny
Proteomes 2024, 12(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes12020015 - 10 May 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
One of the human proteome puzzles is an imbalance between the theoretically calculated and experimentally measured amounts of proteoforms. Considering the possibility of combinations of different post-translational modifications (PTMs), the quantity of possible proteoforms is huge. An estimation gives more than a million [...] Read more.
One of the human proteome puzzles is an imbalance between the theoretically calculated and experimentally measured amounts of proteoforms. Considering the possibility of combinations of different post-translational modifications (PTMs), the quantity of possible proteoforms is huge. An estimation gives more than a million different proteoforms in each cell type. But, it seems that there is strict control over the production and maintenance of PTMs. Although the potential complexity of proteoforms due to PTMs is tremendous, available information indicates that only a small part of it is being implemented. As a result, a protein could have many proteoforms according to the number of modification sites, but because of different systems of personal regulation, the profile of PTMs for a given protein in each organism is slightly different. Full article
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24 pages, 412 KiB  
Perspective
Proteomics—The State of the Field: The Definition and Analysis of Proteomes Should Be Based in Reality, Not Convenience
by Jens R. Coorssen and Matthew P. Padula
Proteomes 2024, 12(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes12020014 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1917
Abstract
With growing recognition and acknowledgement of the genuine complexity of proteomes, we are finally entering the post-proteogenomic era. Routine assessment of proteomes as inferred correlates of gene sequences (i.e., canonical ‘proteins’) cannot provide the necessary critical analysis of systems-level biology that is needed [...] Read more.
With growing recognition and acknowledgement of the genuine complexity of proteomes, we are finally entering the post-proteogenomic era. Routine assessment of proteomes as inferred correlates of gene sequences (i.e., canonical ‘proteins’) cannot provide the necessary critical analysis of systems-level biology that is needed to understand underlying molecular mechanisms and pathways or identify the most selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. These critical requirements demand the analysis of proteomes at the level of proteoforms/protein species, the actual active molecular players. Currently, only highly refined integrated or integrative top-down proteomics (iTDP) enables the analytical depth necessary to provide routine, comprehensive, and quantitative proteome assessments across the widest range of proteoforms inherent to native systems. Here we provide a broad perspective of the field, taking in historical and current realities, to establish a more balanced understanding of where the field has come from (in particular during the ten years since Proteomes was launched), current issues, and how things likely need to proceed if necessary deep proteome analyses are to succeed. We base this in our firm belief that the best proteomic analyses reflect, as closely as possible, the native sample at the moment of sampling. We also seek to emphasise that this and future analytical approaches are likely best based on the broad recognition and exploitation of the complementarity of currently successful approaches. This also emphasises the need to continuously evaluate and further optimize established approaches, to avoid complacency in thinking and expectations but also to promote the critical and careful development and introduction of new approaches, most notably those that address proteoforms. Above all, we wish to emphasise that a rigorous focus on analytical quality must override current thinking that largely values analytical speed; the latter would certainly be nice, if only proteoforms could thus be effectively, routinely, and quantitatively assessed. Alas, proteomes are composed of proteoforms, not molecular species that can be amplified or that directly mirror genes (i.e., ‘canonical’). The problem is hard, and we must accept and address it as such, but the payoff in playing this longer game of rigorous deep proteome analyses is the promise of far more selective biomarkers, drug targets, and truly personalised or even individualised medicine. Full article
20 pages, 1318 KiB  
Review
Key Proteomics Tools for Fundamental and Applied Microalgal Research
by Maxence Plouviez and Eric Dubreucq
Proteomes 2024, 12(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes12020013 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
Microscopic, photosynthetic prokaryotes and eukaryotes, collectively referred to as microalgae, are widely studied to improve our understanding of key metabolic pathways (e.g., photosynthesis) and for the development of biotechnological applications. Omics technologies, which are now common tools in biological research, have been shown [...] Read more.
Microscopic, photosynthetic prokaryotes and eukaryotes, collectively referred to as microalgae, are widely studied to improve our understanding of key metabolic pathways (e.g., photosynthesis) and for the development of biotechnological applications. Omics technologies, which are now common tools in biological research, have been shown to be critical in microalgal research. In the past decade, significant technological advancements have allowed omics technologies to become more affordable and efficient, with huge datasets being generated. In particular, where studies focused on a single or few proteins decades ago, it is now possible to study the whole proteome of a microalgae. The development of mass spectrometry-based methods has provided this leap forward with the high-throughput identification and quantification of proteins. This review specifically provides an overview of the use of proteomics in fundamental (e.g., photosynthesis) and applied (e.g., lipid production for biofuel) microalgal research, and presents future research directions in this field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Proteomics: Techniques and Applications)
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14 pages, 2613 KiB  
Article
Comprehensive Proteome Profiling of a Xanthomonas campestris pv. Campestris B100 Culture Grown in Minimal Medium with a Specific Focus on Nutrient Consumption and Xanthan Biosynthesis
by Ben Struck, Sanne Jitske Wiersma, Vera Ortseifen, Alfred Pühler and Karsten Niehaus
Proteomes 2024, 12(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes12020012 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Xanthan, a bacterial polysaccharide, is widespread in industrial applications, particularly as a food additive. However, little is known about the process of xanthan synthesis on the proteome level, even though Xanthomonas campestris is frequently used for xanthan fermentation. A label-free LC-MS/MS method was [...] Read more.
Xanthan, a bacterial polysaccharide, is widespread in industrial applications, particularly as a food additive. However, little is known about the process of xanthan synthesis on the proteome level, even though Xanthomonas campestris is frequently used for xanthan fermentation. A label-free LC-MS/MS method was employed to study the protein changes during xanthan fermentation in minimal medium. According to the reference database, 2416 proteins were identified, representing 54.75 % of the proteome. The study examined changes in protein abundances concerning the growth phase and xanthan productivity. Throughout the experiment, changes in nitrate concentration appeared to affect the abundance of most proteins involved in nitrogen metabolism, except Gdh and GlnA. Proteins involved in sugar nucleotide metabolism stay unchanged across all growth phases. Apart from GumD, GumB, and GumC, the gum proteins showed no significant changes throughout the experiment. GumD, the first enzyme in the assembly of the xanthan-repeating unit, peaked during the early stationary phase but decreased during the late stationary phase. GumB and GumC, which are involved in exporting xanthan, increased significantly during the stationary phase. This study suggests that a potential bottleneck for xanthan productivity does not reside in the abundance of proteins directly involved in the synthesis pathways. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbial Proteomics)
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15 pages, 3171 KiB  
Article
Integration of Urinary Peptidome and Fecal Microbiome to Explore Patient Clustering in Chronic Kidney Disease
by Emmanouil Mavrogeorgis, Sophie Valkenburg, Justyna Siwy, Agnieszka Latosinska, Griet Glorieux, Harald Mischak and Joachim Jankowski
Proteomes 2024, 12(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes12020011 - 1 Apr 2024
Viewed by 954
Abstract
Millions of people worldwide currently suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD), requiring kidney replacement therapy at the end stage. Endeavors to better understand CKD pathophysiology from an omics perspective have revealed major molecular players in several sample sources. Focusing on non-invasive sources, gut [...] Read more.
Millions of people worldwide currently suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD), requiring kidney replacement therapy at the end stage. Endeavors to better understand CKD pathophysiology from an omics perspective have revealed major molecular players in several sample sources. Focusing on non-invasive sources, gut microbial communities appear to be disturbed in CKD, while numerous human urinary peptides are also dysregulated. Nevertheless, studies often focus on isolated omics techniques, thus potentially missing the complementary pathophysiological information that multidisciplinary approaches could provide. To this end, human urinary peptidome was analyzed and integrated with clinical and fecal microbiome (16S sequencing) data collected from 110 Non-CKD or CKD individuals (Early, Moderate, or Advanced CKD stage) that were not undergoing dialysis. Participants were visualized in a three-dimensional space using different combinations of clinical and molecular data. The most impactful clinical variables to discriminate patient groups in the reduced dataspace were, among others, serum urea, haemoglobin, total blood protein, urinary albumin, urinary erythrocytes, blood pressure, cholesterol measures, body mass index, Bristol stool score, and smoking; relevant variables were also microbial taxa, including Roseburia, Butyricicoccus, Flavonifractor, Burkholderiales, Holdemania, Synergistaceae, Enterorhabdus, and Senegalimassilia; urinary peptidome fragments were predominantly derived from proteins of collagen origin; among the non-collagen parental proteins were FXYD2, MGP, FGA, APOA1, and CD99. The urinary peptidome appeared to capture substantial variation in the CKD context. Integrating clinical and molecular data contributed to an improved cohort separation compared to clinical data alone, indicating, once again, the added value of this combined information in clinical practice. Full article
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32 pages, 6256 KiB  
Article
Cadmium Highlights Common and Specific Responses of Two Freshwater Sentinel Species, Dreissena polymorpha and Dreissena rostriformis bugensis
by Florence Bultelle, Aimie Le Saux, Elise David, Arnaud Tanguy, Simon Devin, Stéphanie Olivier, Agnès Poret, Philippe Chan, Fanny Louis, Laurence Delahaut, Sandrine Pain-Devin, Romain Péden, David Vaudry, Frank Le Foll and Béatrice Rocher
Proteomes 2024, 12(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/proteomes12020010 - 26 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1002
Abstract
Zebra mussel (ZM), Dreissena polymorpha, commonly used as a sentinel species in freshwater biomonitoring, is now in competition for habitat with quagga mussel (QM), Dreissena rostriformis bugensis. This raises the question of the quagga mussel’s use in environmental survey. To better characterise [...] Read more.
Zebra mussel (ZM), Dreissena polymorpha, commonly used as a sentinel species in freshwater biomonitoring, is now in competition for habitat with quagga mussel (QM), Dreissena rostriformis bugensis. This raises the question of the quagga mussel’s use in environmental survey. To better characterise QM response to stress compared with ZM, both species were exposed to cadmium (100 µg·L−1), a classic pollutant, for 7 days under controlled conditions. The gill proteomes were analysed using two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. For ZM, 81 out of 88 proteoforms of variable abundance were identified using mass spectrometry, and for QM, 105 out of 134. Interestingly, the proteomic response amplitude varied drastically, with 5.6% of proteoforms of variable abundance (DAPs) in ZM versus 9.4% in QM. QM also exhibited greater cadmium accumulation. Only 12 common DAPs were observed. Several short proteoforms were detected, suggesting proteolysis. Functional analysis is consistent with the pleiotropic effects of the toxic metal ion cadmium, with alterations in sulphur and glutathione metabolisms, cellular calcium signalling, cytoskeletal dynamics, energy production, chaperone activation, and membrane events with numerous proteins involved in trafficking and endocytosis/exocytosis processes. Beyond common responses, the sister species display distinct reactions, with cellular response to stress being the main category involved in ZM as opposed to calcium and cytoskeleton alterations in QM. Moreover, QM exhibited greater evidence of proteolysis and cell death. Overall, these results suggest that QM has a weaker stress response capacity than ZM. Full article
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