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Open AccessArticle

Assessing Annual Actual Evapotranspiration Based on Climate, Topography and Soil in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems

1
Goulandris Natural History Museum, Greek Biotope/Wetland Centre, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Hellenic Agricultural Organization-Demeter, Soil and Water Resources Institute, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Agroapps P.C., 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Climate 2021, 9(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020020
Received: 12 December 2020 / Revised: 13 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Ecosystems Nexus)
Simple formulas for estimating annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) based on annual climate data are widely used in large scale applications. Such formulas do not have distinct compartments related to topography, soil and irrigation, and for this reason may be limited in basins with high slopes, where runoff is the dominant water balance component, and in basins where irrigated agriculture is dominant. Thus, a simplistic method for assessing AET in both natural ecosystems and agricultural systems considering the aforementioned elements is proposed in this study. The method solves AET through water balance based on a set of formulas that estimate runoff and percolation. These formulas are calibrated by the results of the deterministic hydrological model GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems) for a reference surface. The proposed methodology is applied to the country of Greece and compared with the widely used climate-based methods of Oldekop, Coutagne and Turk. The results show that the proposed methodology agrees very well with the method of Turk for the lowland regions but presents significant differences in places where runoff is expected to be very high (sloppy areas and areas of high rainfall, especially during December–February), suggesting that the proposed method performs better due to its runoff compartment. The method can also be applied in a single application considering irrigation only for the irrigated lands to more accurately estimate AET in basins with a high percentage of irrigated agriculture. View Full-Text
Keywords: actual evapotranspiration; reference evapotranspiration; surface runoff; surface slope; percolation; saturated hydraulic conductivity; irrigation actual evapotranspiration; reference evapotranspiration; surface runoff; surface slope; percolation; saturated hydraulic conductivity; irrigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Demertzi, K.; Pisinaras, V.; Lekakis, E.; Tziritis, E.; Babakos, K.; Aschonitis, V. Assessing Annual Actual Evapotranspiration Based on Climate, Topography and Soil in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems. Climate 2021, 9, 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020020

AMA Style

Demertzi K, Pisinaras V, Lekakis E, Tziritis E, Babakos K, Aschonitis V. Assessing Annual Actual Evapotranspiration Based on Climate, Topography and Soil in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems. Climate. 2021; 9(2):20. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Demertzi, Kleoniki; Pisinaras, Vassilios; Lekakis, Emanuel; Tziritis, Evangelos; Babakos, Konstantinos; Aschonitis, Vassilis. 2021. "Assessing Annual Actual Evapotranspiration Based on Climate, Topography and Soil in Natural and Agricultural Ecosystems" Climate 9, no. 2: 20. https://doi.org/10.3390/cli9020020

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