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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 9, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 16 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Connected cars and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications are attracting more research. V2X will be considered for route optimization, travel time reduction, and dangerous situations. It is reasonable to expect a connection system in which a pedestrian can report their position to all surrounding vehicles. This paper introduces a development of a solution based on V2X communications aimed at vehicle and pedestrian safety. View this paper
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Open AccessArticle
A New Secure RFID Anti-Counterfeiting and Anti-Theft Scheme for Merchandise
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010016 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2139
Abstract
Counterfeiting and theft have always been problems that incur high costs and result in considerable losses for international markets. In this research paper, we address the issue of counterfeiting while using radio frequency identification RFID technology in retail systems or other industries by [...] Read more.
Counterfeiting and theft have always been problems that incur high costs and result in considerable losses for international markets. In this research paper, we address the issue of counterfeiting while using radio frequency identification RFID technology in retail systems or other industries by presenting a new anti-counterfeiting and anti-theft system for the retail market. This system addresses the two abovementioned issues and provides a solution that can save retail systems millions of dollars yearly. The proposed system achieves the objective of preventing or minimising the counterfeiting and theft of tagged products. At the same time, it provides a strong indication of suspiciously sold or obtained items. Furthermore, we conducted a security analysis to prove the correctness of our protocol on the basis of the strand spaces. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The Use of Meta-Surfaces in Vehicular Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010015 - 02 Mar 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2346
Abstract
Mobility as a service is becoming a new paradigm in the direction of travel planning on the basis of the best service offered by the travelled roads. Hence, the environment in which people move will become smarter and more and more connected to [...] Read more.
Mobility as a service is becoming a new paradigm in the direction of travel planning on the basis of the best service offered by the travelled roads. Hence, the environment in which people move will become smarter and more and more connected to grant services along the whole path. This opens new challenges related not only to the on board connectivity and wireless access technologies, but also on the reliability and efficiency of the surrounding environment. In this context, reconfigurable meta-surfaces play a crucial role, since they can be used to coat buildings, vehicles or any other suitable surfaces and let the environment become an active part of the communication system by opportunistically redirecting (i.e., reflecting, without generating new waves) signals to the target receivers. The objective of this paper is to highlight the limits of current wireless access technologies for vehicular scenarios and to discuss the potential impact of a smart environment made of reconfigurable meta-surfaces on some next generation vehicular use cases, such as cooperative driving and vulnerable road users (VRUs) detection. In addition, a preliminary model is presented to derive, in a simplified way, the performance of an IEEE 802.11p network in terms of collision probability. Even if analytical and based on simplified assumptions, this model has been validated through simulations and allows to compare the performance of the network with and without reconfigurable meta-surfaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vehicular Networks) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditorial
Special Issue: Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010014 - 27 Feb 2020
Viewed by 2094
Abstract
Recent and continuous development of mobile computing and user-centric applications has led to a requirement for accurate and low-cost localization and tracking systems [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Use of Class B LoRaWAN for the Coordination of Distributed Interface Protection Systems in Smart Grids
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010013 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2299
Abstract
The adoption of the distributed generation paradigm is introducing several changes in the design and operation of modern distribution networks. Modern grid codes are becoming more and more complex, and the adoption of smart protection systems is becoming mandatory. However, the adoption of [...] Read more.
The adoption of the distributed generation paradigm is introducing several changes in the design and operation of modern distribution networks. Modern grid codes are becoming more and more complex, and the adoption of smart protection systems is becoming mandatory. However, the adoption of newer and smarter units is only half of the story. Proper communication networks must be provided as well, and the overall costs may become critical. In this work, the adoption of the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology is suggested as a viable approach to implement the coordination of Interface Protection Systems. A proper communication architecture based on the LoRaWAN Class B technology was proposed and evaluated in order to assess its feasibility for the considered application. A scalability analysis was carried out, by computing the number of devices that can be handled by a single LoRaWAN Gateway (GW) and the maximum expected time of response between a triggering event and the arrival of the related coordination command. The results of the study showed that up to 312 devices can be managed by a single GW, by assuring a maximum response time of 22.95 s. A faster maximum response time of 6.2 s is also possible by reducing the number of managed devices to 12. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the Log-Normal Model for Received Signal Strength Measurements in Real Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010012 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2465
Abstract
Using the classical received signal strength (RSS)-distance log-normal model in wireless sensor network (WSN) applications poses a series of characteristic challenges derived from (a) the model’s structural limitations when it comes to explaining real observations, (b) the inherent hardware (HW) variability typically encountered [...] Read more.
Using the classical received signal strength (RSS)-distance log-normal model in wireless sensor network (WSN) applications poses a series of characteristic challenges derived from (a) the model’s structural limitations when it comes to explaining real observations, (b) the inherent hardware (HW) variability typically encountered in the low-cost nodes of WSNs, and (c) the inhomogeneity of the deployment environment. The main goal of this article is to better characterize how these factors impact the model parameters, an issue that has received little attention in the literature. For that matter, I qualitatively elaborate on their effects and interplay, and present the results of two quantitative empirical studies showing how much the parameters can vary depending on (a) the nodes used in the model identification and their position in the environment, and (b) the antenna directionality. I further show that the path loss exponent and the reference power can be highly correlated. In view of all this, I argue that real WSN deployments are better represented by random model parameters jointly accounting for HW and local environmental characteristics, rather than by deterministic independent ones. I further argue that taking this variability into account results in more realistic models and plausible results derived from their usage. The article contains example values of the mean and standard deviation of the model parameters, and of the correlation between the path loss exponent and the reference power. These can be used as a guideline in other studies. Given the sensitivity of localization algorithms to the proper model selection and identification demonstrated in the literature, the structural limitations of the log-normal model, the variability of its parameters and their interrelation are all relevant aspects that practitioners need to be aware of when devising optimal localization algorithms for real WSNs that rely on this popular model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring System of a Heat Pump Installation for Heating a Rural House Using Low-grade Heat from a Surface Watercourse
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010011 - 09 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2180
Abstract
Increasing the efficiency of heat pump systems primarily used for heat supply to buildings is an important topic. This is especially true for systems constructed according to non-standard schemes and which use low-grade heat from various sources that are rarely considered for these [...] Read more.
Increasing the efficiency of heat pump systems primarily used for heat supply to buildings is an important topic. This is especially true for systems constructed according to non-standard schemes and which use low-grade heat from various sources that are rarely considered for these purposes. Such studies require special, often expensive, data acquisition systems. In this paper, a low-cost computer-based monitoring system is presented. The monitoring system incorporates solutions which are new or seldom used. It is shown that modern semiconductor thermistors can replace commonly used platinum temperature sensors and thermocouples. A proposal for processing frequency output signals from sensors through an analog-to-digital converter and a way to reduce the number of required input channels are described. The monitoring system allows optimization of various types of heat-pump-based installations. The system has been used for quite a long time to monitor the operation of the heat pump installation using low-grade heat from a surface watercourse. With its help, the feasibility of using the previously proposed submersible floating heat exchanger is justified and the optimal scheme for its placement in the watercourse is determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Instrumentation for Power Converter Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Quality-Of-Service in LoRa Low-Power Wide-Area Networks through Optimized Radio Resource Management
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010010 - 08 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2517
Abstract
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) enable a growing number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications with large geographical coverage, low bit-rate, and long lifetime requirements. LoRa (Long Range) is a well-known LPWAN technology that uses a proprietary Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) physical layer, while [...] Read more.
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) enable a growing number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications with large geographical coverage, low bit-rate, and long lifetime requirements. LoRa (Long Range) is a well-known LPWAN technology that uses a proprietary Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) physical layer, while the upper layers are defined by an open standard—LoRaWAN. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS) of LoRaWAN networks by fine-tuning specific radio parameters. Through a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem formulation, we find optimal settings for the Spreading Factor (SF) and Carrier Frequency (CF) radio parameters, considering the network traffic specifications as a whole, to improve the Data Extraction Rate (DER) and to reduce the packet collision rate and the energy consumption in LoRa networks. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is demonstrated by simulations, using LoRaSim for different network scales. In relation to the traditional LoRa radio parameter assignment policies, our solution leads to an average increase of 6% in DER, and a number of collisions 13 times smaller. In comparison to networks with dynamic radio parameter assignment policies, there is an increase of 5%, 2.8%, and 2% of DER, and a number of collisions 11, 7.8 and 2.5 times smaller than equal-distribution, Tiurlikova’s (SOTA), and random distribution, respectively. Regarding the network energy consumption metric, the proposed optimization obtained an average consumption similar to Tiurlikova’s, and 2.8 times lower than the equal-distribution and random dynamic allocation policies. Furthermore, we approach the practical aspects of how to implement and integrate the optimization mechanism proposed in LoRa, guaranteeing backward compatibility with the standard protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensor and Actuator Networks: Feature Papers)
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Open AccessArticle
Human Movement Monitoring and Analysis for Prehabilitation Process Management
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010009 - 21 Jan 2020
Viewed by 2358
Abstract
Cancer patients assigned for abdominal surgery are often given exercise programmes (prehabilitation) prior to surgery, which aim to improve fitness in order to reduce pre-operative risk. However, only a small proportion of patients are able to partake in supervised hospital-based prehabilitation because of [...] Read more.
Cancer patients assigned for abdominal surgery are often given exercise programmes (prehabilitation) prior to surgery, which aim to improve fitness in order to reduce pre-operative risk. However, only a small proportion of patients are able to partake in supervised hospital-based prehabilitation because of inaccessibility and a lack of resources, which often makes it difficult for health professionals to accurately monitor and provide feedback on exercise and activity levels. The development of a simple tool to detect the type and intensity of physical activity undertaken outside the hospital setting would be beneficial to both patients and clinicians. This paper aims to describe the key exercises of a prehabilitation programme and to determine whether the types and intensity of various prehabilitation exercises could be accurately identified using Fourier analysis of 3D accelerometer sensor data. A wearable sensor with an inbuilt 3D accelerometer was placed on both the ankle and wrist of five volunteer participants during nine prehabilitation exercises which were performed at low to high intensity. Here, the 3D accelerometer data are analysed using fast Fourier analysis, where the dominant frequency and amplitude components are extracted for each activity performed at low, moderate, and high intensity. The findings indicate that the 3D accelerometer located at the ankle is suitable for detecting activities such as cycling and rowing at low, moderate, and high exercise intensities. However, there is some overlap in the frequency and acceleration amplitude components for overland and treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Diagnosing Automotive Damper Defects Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Electronic Stability Control Sensor Signals
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010008 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2475
Abstract
Chassis system components such as dampers have a significant impact on vehicle stability, driving safety, and driving comfort. Therefore, monitoring and diagnosing the defects of these components is necessary. Currently, this task is based on the driver’s perception of component defects in series [...] Read more.
Chassis system components such as dampers have a significant impact on vehicle stability, driving safety, and driving comfort. Therefore, monitoring and diagnosing the defects of these components is necessary. Currently, this task is based on the driver’s perception of component defects in series production vehicles, even though model-based approaches in the literature exist. As we observe an increased availability of data in modern vehicles and advances in the field of deep learning, this paper deals with the analysis of the performance of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) for the diagnosis of automotive damper defects. To ensure a broad applicability of the generated diagnosis system, only signals of a classic Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system, such as wheel speeds, longitudinal and lateral vehicle acceleration, and yaw rate, were used. A structured analysis of data pre-processing and CNN configuration parameters were investigated in terms of the defect detection result. The results show that simple Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) pre-processing and configuration parameters resulting in small networks are sufficient for a high defect detection rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vehicular Networks) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks in 2019
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010007 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 2217
Open AccessArticle
A Cloud Based Disaster Management System
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010006 - 13 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2806
Abstract
The combination of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and 3D virtual environments opens a new paradigm for their use in natural disaster management applications. It is important to have a realistic virtual environment based on datasets received from WSNs to prepare a backup rescue [...] Read more.
The combination of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and 3D virtual environments opens a new paradigm for their use in natural disaster management applications. It is important to have a realistic virtual environment based on datasets received from WSNs to prepare a backup rescue scenario with an acceptable response time. This paper describes a complete cloud-based system that collects data from wireless sensor nodes deployed in real environments and then builds a 3D environment in near real-time to reflect the incident detected by sensors (fire, gas leaking, etc.). The system’s purpose is to be used as a training environment for a rescue team to develop various rescue plans before they are applied in real emergency situations. The proposed cloud architecture combines 3D data streaming and sensor data collection to build an efficient network infrastructure that meets the strict network latency requirements for 3D mobile disaster applications. As compared to other existing systems, the proposed system is truly complete. First, it collects data from sensor nodes and then transfers it using an enhanced Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RLP). A 3D modular visualizer with a dynamic game engine was also developed in the cloud for near-real time 3D rendering. This is an advantage for highly-complex rendering algorithms and less powerful devices. An Extensible Markup Language (XML) atomic action concept was used to inject 3D scene modifications into the game engine without stopping or restarting the engine. Finally, a multi-objective multiple traveling salesman problem (AHP-MTSP) algorithm is proposed to generate an efficient rescue plan by assigning robots and multiple unmanned aerial vehicles to disaster target locations, while minimizing a set of predefined objectives that depend on the situation. The results demonstrate that immediate feedback obtained from the reconstructed 3D environment can help to investigate what–if scenarios, allowing for the preparation of effective rescue plans with an appropriate management effort. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Reliable and Energy-Efficient Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010005 - 08 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2691
Abstract
In this paper, novel energy-aware and reliable routing protocols are proposed. The aim is to maximize the lifespan of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) subject to predefined reliability constraints by using multi-hop routing schemes, in which the source node forwards the packet to the [...] Read more.
In this paper, novel energy-aware and reliable routing protocols are proposed. The aim is to maximize the lifespan of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) subject to predefined reliability constraints by using multi-hop routing schemes, in which the source node forwards the packet to the base station (BS) via other nodes as relays. In the first proposed protocol, energy efficiency is achieved by maximizing the minimum residual energy of the path subject to fulfilling a predefined reliability constraints. The second protocol is an optimized version of the first one with respect to lifespan and complexity. The optimal path is the one in which the residual energy distribution of the nodes along the path is as close to uniform as possible and the packet arrives at the base station with a given success probability. To measure the uniformity of the residual energy distribution, we use an entropy like measure. The information about the current energy state of the network is maintained by using a look-up-table from which the optimal routes are computed on the BS. The BS broadcasts the updated optimal paths to each node after each round of packet transmission. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wireless Sensor Networks and Telecommunications)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Management and Orchestration Solutions for the 5G Era
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010004 - 04 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3334
Abstract
5G is considered to be the technology that will accommodate the development and management of innovative services with stringent and diverse requirements from end users, calling for new business models from the industry. In this context, the development and efficient management of Network [...] Read more.
5G is considered to be the technology that will accommodate the development and management of innovative services with stringent and diverse requirements from end users, calling for new business models from the industry. In this context, the development and efficient management of Network Services (NS) serving specific vertical industries and spanning across multiple administrative domains and heterogeneous infrastructures is challenging. The main challenges regard the efficient provision of NSs considering the Quality of Service (QoS) requirements per vertical industry along with the optimal usage of the allocated resources. Towards addressing these challenges, this paper details an innovative approach that we have developed for managing and orchestrating such NSs, called SONATA, and compare it with OSM and Cloudify, which are two of the most known open-source Management and Orchestration (MANO) frameworks. In addition to examining the supported orchestration mechanisms per MANO framework, an evaluation of main operational and functional KPIs is provided based on experimentation using a real testbed. The final aim is the identification of their strong and weak points, and the assessment of their suitability for serving diverse vertical industry needs, including of course the Internet of Things (IoT) service ecosystem. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5G and Beyond towards Enhancing Our Future)
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Open AccessArticle
V2X Communications Applied to Safety of Pedestrians and Vehicles
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010003 - 27 Dec 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3095
Abstract
Connected cars and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication scenarios are attracting more researchers. There will be numerous possibilities offered by V2X in the future. For instance, in the case of vehicles that move in a column, they could react to the braking of those in [...] Read more.
Connected cars and vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication scenarios are attracting more researchers. There will be numerous possibilities offered by V2X in the future. For instance, in the case of vehicles that move in a column, they could react to the braking of those in front of it through the rapid information exchanges, and most chain collisions could be avoided. V2X will be desiderated for routes optimizations, travel time reductions, and accident rate decrease in cases such as communication with infrastructures, traffic information exchanges, functioning of traffic lights, possible situations of danger, and the presence of construction sites or traffic jams. Furthermore, there could be massive conversations between smartphones and vehicles performing real-time dialogues. It is relatively reasonable to expect a connection system in which a pedestrian can report its position to all surrounding vehicles. Regarding this, it is compelling to perceive the positive effects of the driver being aware of the presence of pedestrians when vehicles are moving on the roads. This paper introduces the concepts for the development of a solution based on V2X communications aimed at vehicle and pedestrian safety. A potential system architecture for the development of a real system, concerning the safety of vehicles and pedestrians, is suggested to draft some guidelines that could be followed in new applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vehicular Networks) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Comparison of Closed-Form Least Squares Algorithms for Hyperbolic 3-D Positioning
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010002 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2598
Abstract
An accurate 3-D wireless local positioning system (LPS) is a highly demanded tool for increasing safety in, e.g., emergency response and security operations. An LPS is an attractive approach that can meet stringent requirements and can achieve acceptable accuracies for a long time [...] Read more.
An accurate 3-D wireless local positioning system (LPS) is a highly demanded tool for increasing safety in, e.g., emergency response and security operations. An LPS is an attractive approach that can meet stringent requirements and can achieve acceptable accuracies for a long time during extended operations in global navigation satellite system (GNSS)-denied environments. In this work, three closed-form (CF) least squares (LS) algorithms were considered, where two of them were adapted to exploit the knowledge about nuisance parameters for accurate 3-D positioning based on time difference of arrival (TDoA) measurements. The algorithms utilize the single set (SS) of the TDoA measurements, an extended SS (ExSS) of the TDoA measurements, or the full set (FS) of the TDoA measurements, and were denoted, respectively, as the CFSSLS, CFExSSLS, and CFFSLS solutions. The performance of the algorithms was investigated with simulations and real-world measurements, where the wireless system transmitters were placed in a quasi-coplanar arrangement. At moderate to high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels, the CFSSLS solution has the best performance, followed by the CFExSSLS solution and then by the CFFSLS solution. At low SNR levels, the CFFSLS algorithm outperformed the other two algorithms. Both the CFSSLS and CFFSLS solutions estimate nuisance parameters that are utilized in refining the vertical position estimate of the receiver. The CFFSLS solution delivers more accurate refined vertical position estimates since it utilizes more nuisance parameters, i.e., more information. The experimental results confirmed the simulation study in which the CFFSLS algorithm outperformed the other two algorithms, where the experimental environment was dominated by total non-line-of-sight (NLoS) conditions and low SNR levels at the receiver to be located. Therefore, it is recommended to use the FS TDoA measurements for 3-D positioning in bad signal conditions, such as high noise levels and NLoS propagation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
D-FAP: Dual-Factor Authentication Protocol for Mobile Cloud Connected Devices
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2020, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jsan9010001 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2687
Abstract
Emerging Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) technologies offer a new world of promise by leveraging the quality of mobile services. With MCC, resource-constrained mobile devices could capitalize on the computation/storage resources of cloud servers via communication networks. While MCC adoption is growing significantly, several [...] Read more.
Emerging Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) technologies offer a new world of promise by leveraging the quality of mobile services. With MCC, resource-constrained mobile devices could capitalize on the computation/storage resources of cloud servers via communication networks. While MCC adoption is growing significantly, several challenges need to be addressed to make MCC-based solutions scale and meet the ever-growing demand for more resource intensive applications. Security is a critical problem hindering the adoption of MCC. One of the most important aspects of MCC security is to establish authenticated communication sessions between mobile devices and cloud servers. The huge amount of data stored on mobile devices poses information security risks and privacy concerns for individuals, enterprises, and governments. The ability to establish authenticated communication sessions between mobile devices and cloud servers can resolve many security concerns. Limited computing and energy resources on mobile devices makes authentication and encryption a challenging task. In this paper, an overview of MCC authentication protocols is presented. Then, a Dual-Factor Authentication Protocol for MCC devices (D-FAP) is proposed. D-FAP aims at increasing authentication security by using multi-factors while offloading computation to the cloud to reduce battery consumption. The security of the protocol is formally verified and informal analysis is performed for various attacks. The results prove that the D-FAP is successful in mitigating various outsider and insider attacks. Full article
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