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Cytokinin-Dependent Control of GH3 Group II Family Genes in the Arabidopsis Root

1
Dipartimento di Biologia e Biotecnologie, Laboratory of Functional Genomics and Proteomics of Model Systems, Università di Roma, Sapienza-via dei Sardi, 70–00185 Rome, Italy
2
Department of Biology, University of Pisa-via L. Ghini, 13–56126 Pisa, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bolzano–Piazza Università, 5-I-39100 Bolzano, Italy.
Plants 2019, 8(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040094
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 4 April 2019 / Accepted: 6 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract

The Arabidopsis root is a dynamic system where the interaction between different plant hormones controls root meristem activity and, thus, organ growth. In the root, a characteristic graded distribution of the hormone auxin provides positional information, coordinating the proliferating and differentiating cell status. The hormone cytokinin shapes this gradient by positioning an auxin minimum in the last meristematic cells. This auxin minimum triggers a cell developmental switch necessary to start the differentiation program, thus, regulating the root meristem size. To position the auxin minimum, cytokinin promotes the expression of the IAA-amido synthase group II gene GH3.17, which conjugates auxin with amino acids, in the most external layer of the root, the lateral root cap tissue. Since additional GH3 genes are expressed in the root, we questioned whether cytokinin to position the auxin minimum also operates via different GH3 genes. Here, we show that cytokinin regulates meristem size by activating the expression of GH3.5 and GH3.6 genes, in addition to GH3.17. Thus, cytokinin activity provides a robust control of auxin activity in the entire organ necessary to regulate root growth. View Full-Text
Keywords: GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) IAA-amido synthase group II; root apical meristem; auxin; cytokinin; lateral root cap; auxin minimum; auxin conjugation GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) IAA-amido synthase group II; root apical meristem; auxin; cytokinin; lateral root cap; auxin minimum; auxin conjugation
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Pierdonati, E.; Unterholzner, S.J.; Salvi, E.; Svolacchia, N.; Bertolotti, G.; Dello Ioio, R.; Sabatini, S.; Di Mambro, R. Cytokinin-Dependent Control of GH3 Group II Family Genes in the Arabidopsis Root. Plants 2019, 8, 94.

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