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Effects of Residence Time, Auto-Fertility and Pollinator Dependence on Reproductive Output and Spread of Alien and Native Asteraceae

1
Institute of Landscape and Plant Ecology, University of Hohenheim, August-von-Hartmann Str. 3, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany
2
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Via S. Epifanio 14, 27100 Pavia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040108
Received: 18 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 18 April 2019 / Published: 23 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Invasive Plants)
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Abstract

Alien plants benefit from auto-fertility to spread over areas where the lack of co-evolved mutualists would otherwise limit invasion success. However, the widespread generalists among mutualists and their large geographical ranges allow alien plants to be integrated into networks. The role of residence time also has to be accounted for, as it takes time for a species to spread and adapt to a new area. We investigated how residence time, auto-fertility and pollinator dependence affect reproductive output and invasion success of Asteraceae in Germany. We conducted a multi-species common-garden experiment along an alien–native continuum including 42 species of natives, archaeophytes and neophytes (casual and established), subjecting plant individuals either to free access or exclusion of pollinators. Pollinator dependence does not play a crucial role in invasion success, with most Asteraceae being able to self-fertilize. Surprisingly, both established neophytes and natives showed higher abilities to self-fertilize, while archaeophytes and casual neophytes were more attractive to pollinators. In contrast to casual neophytes, the established neophytes’ strategy was associated with a large reproductive output. Yet, auto-fertility was not associated with range size, since archaeophytes reached the largest range sizes. Elucidating how breeding systems affect invasion success is crucial for predicting and managing invasions. View Full-Text
Keywords: alien–native species continuum; Asteraceae; auto-fertility; multi-species experiment; plant invasion; pollinator dependence; residence time alien–native species continuum; Asteraceae; auto-fertility; multi-species experiment; plant invasion; pollinator dependence; residence time
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Corli, A.; Sheppard, C.S. Effects of Residence Time, Auto-Fertility and Pollinator Dependence on Reproductive Output and Spread of Alien and Native Asteraceae. Plants 2019, 8, 108.

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