Next Article in Journal
Contribution of Root Hair Development to Sulfate Uptake in Arabidopsis
Previous Article in Journal
Smoke-Water Enhances Germination and Seedling Growth of Four Horticultural Crops
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Explorative Frequency Analysis of Leaf Temperature Behavior of Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) at Water Deficit

Chair of Dynamics and Control, University of Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstr. 1-21, 47057 Duisburg, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Plants 2019, 8(4), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8040105
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 12 April 2019 / Accepted: 16 April 2019 / Published: 18 April 2019
  |  
PDF [6166 KB, uploaded 18 April 2019]
  |  

Abstract

In this study, different standard frequency analysis (FA) methods are applied to measured leaf temperature data of maize plants (developmental stages EC13–15). These FA methods are used to identify specific behaviors, regularities, and sudden changes in frequencies/amplitudes of data, e.g., in control engineering. The thorough application of different FA methods in plant studies is novel. The aim of this paper is to analyze features of the measured data and to explore the explanatory power of different methods for the detection of plant dynamic behavioral changes. The basic assumption is an expected relation between plant water stress and resulting changes in leaf temperature oscillations caused by stress-induced changes in stomatal behavior. Therefore, an irrigation experiment (laboratory; controlled environmental conditions) was implemented to compare leaf temperature behavior of stressed and unstressed plants. Leaf temperature time series are processed and the results are compared as functions of time showing the behavioral changes in terms of the different methods applied. The analysis of results is explained; conclusions, which can be made based on different methods, are given. The study confirms the applicability of FA methods and provides new insights into leaf temperature behavioral patterns. Results are discussed regarding the hypothesized incipience of leaf temperature oscillations due to water stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: oscillation; system behavior; water stress; Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT); Phase Portrait (PP); Short-Term Fourier Transform (STFT) oscillation; system behavior; water stress; Hilbert–Huang Transform (HHT); Phase Portrait (PP); Short-Term Fourier Transform (STFT)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kögler, F.; Söffker, D. Explorative Frequency Analysis of Leaf Temperature Behavior of Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) at Water Deficit. Plants 2019, 8, 105.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Plants EISSN 2223-7747 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top