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Article

The Combination of Increased Temperatures and High Irradiation Causes Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency

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Agricultural Institute Osijek, Južno Predgrađe 17, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Faculty of Agrobiotechnical Sciences Osijek, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 1, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Centre of Excellence for Biodiversity and Molecular Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska cesta 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
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Department of Biology, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Ul. cara Hadrijana 8/A, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Faculty of Dental Medicine and Health, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Crkvena 21, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, Ul. Lorenza Jagera 9, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chien Van Ha, Mohammad Golam Mostofa, Gopal Saha and Swarup Roy Choudhury
Plants 2021, 10(10), 2076; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102076
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 27 September 2021 / Accepted: 27 September 2021 / Published: 30 September 2021
Global warming and the associated climate change are imposing abiotic stress on plants. Abiotic factors are crucial for plant productivity, survival, and reproduction. Eight sunflower hybrids were tested in conditions of different water availability and with combinations of different temperatures and irradiation. The changes in the photosynthetic efficiency were measured in the morning (control conditions: 2013, 25.8 °C and 349.1 W m−2; 2014, 21.8 °C and 296.4 W m−2) and afternoon (the combination of increased temperatures and high irradiation: 2013, 34 °C and 837.9 W m−2; 2014, 29.4 °C and 888.9 W m−2) at a flowering stage in rainfed or irrigated conditions. The measurement time (morning and afternoon conditions) had a statistically significant effect on all the tested parameters. The performance index (PIABS) in 2013 and the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (TR0/ABS) in 2014 are the only parameters significantly affected by the irrigation. As a result of the combined effect of increased temperatures and high irradiation, PIABS values decreased by 73–92% in rainfed conditions and by 63–87% in irrigated conditions in 2013, depending on the hybrid, while in 2014, the decrease varied between 70 and 86%. The TR0/ABS decrease was 7–17% in 2013, depending on the hybrid, and 6–12% in 2014, both in rainfed and irrigated conditions. The principal component analysis confirmed the effect of the combination of increased temperatures and high irradiation on hybrids, sorting them exclusively according to the time of measurement. All investigated parameters highly fluctuated between hybrids but without observable trends for the morning and afternoon conditions, as well as for irrigation. Plants’ reaction to the combination of increased temperatures and high irradiation manifested as a change in their photosynthetic efficiency, i.e., the photosynthetic apparatus’ functioning was impaired. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorophyll a fluorescence; enzyme; Helianthus annuus; irrigation; solar radiation; temperature chlorophyll a fluorescence; enzyme; Helianthus annuus; irrigation; solar radiation; temperature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Markulj Kulundžić, A.; Viljevac Vuletić, M.; Matoša Kočar, M.; Mijić, A.; Varga, I.; Sudarić, A.; Cesar, V.; Lepeduš, H. The Combination of Increased Temperatures and High Irradiation Causes Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency. Plants 2021, 10, 2076. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102076

AMA Style

Markulj Kulundžić A, Viljevac Vuletić M, Matoša Kočar M, Mijić A, Varga I, Sudarić A, Cesar V, Lepeduš H. The Combination of Increased Temperatures and High Irradiation Causes Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency. Plants. 2021; 10(10):2076. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102076

Chicago/Turabian Style

Markulj Kulundžić, Antonela, Marija Viljevac Vuletić, Maja Matoša Kočar, Anto Mijić, Ivana Varga, Aleksandra Sudarić, Vera Cesar, and Hrvoje Lepeduš. 2021. "The Combination of Increased Temperatures and High Irradiation Causes Changes in Photosynthetic Efficiency" Plants 10, no. 10: 2076. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10102076

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