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The Suitability of UAS for Mass Movement Monitoring Caused by Torrential Rainfall—A Study on the Talus Cones in the Alpine Terrain in High Tatras, Slovakia

1
Department of Special Geodesy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague, Czech Republic
2
Institute of Geodesy, Cartography and Geographical Information Systems, Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnology, Technical University Kosice, Park Komenského 19, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
3
Institute of Geosciences, Faculty of Mining, Ecology, Process Control and Geotechnology, Technical University Kosice, Park Komenského 15, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
4
Department of Flight Training, Faculty of Aeronautics, Technical University of Kosice, Ramp 7, Kosice 04121, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8(8), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijgi8080317
Received: 8 May 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 24 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Photogrammetry for Environmental Research)
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Abstract

The prediction of landslides and other events associated with slope movement is a very serious issue in many national parks around the world. This article deals with the territory of the Malá Studená Dolina (Little Cold Valley, High Tatras National Park—Slovakia), where there are extensive talus cones, through which seasonally heavy hiking trails lead. In the last few years particularly, there have been frequent falls and landslides in the mountainous environment, which also caused several fatal injuries in 2018. For the above reasons, efforts are being made to develop a methodology for monitoring the changes of the talus cones in this specific alpine area, to determine the size, speed, and character of the morphological changes of the soil. Non-contact methods of mass data collection (laser scanning with Leica P40 and aerial photogrammetry with unmanned aerial system (UAS) DJI Phantom 4 Pro) have been used. The results of these measurements were compared and the overall suitability of both methods for measurement in such terrain evaluated. The standard deviation of the difference of surface determination (represented by the point cloud) is about 0.03 m. As such accuracy is sufficient for the purpose of monitoring talus cones and the use of UAS is easier and associated with lower risk of damage of expensive equipment, we conclude that this method is more suitable for mapping and for repeated monitoring of such terrain. The properties of the outputs of the individual measurement methods, the degree of measurement difficulty and specific measurement conditions in the mountainous terrain, as well as the economy of the individual methods, are discussed in detail. View Full-Text
Keywords: monitoring; georelief; geohazards; talus cones; UAS; TLS; SfM; torrential rainfall monitoring; georelief; geohazards; talus cones; UAS; TLS; SfM; torrential rainfall
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Urban, R.; Štroner, M.; Blistan, P.; Kovanič, Ľ.; Patera, M.; Jacko, S.; Ďuriška, I.; Kelemen, M.; Szabo, S. The Suitability of UAS for Mass Movement Monitoring Caused by Torrential Rainfall—A Study on the Talus Cones in the Alpine Terrain in High Tatras, Slovakia. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2019, 8, 317.

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