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Phenolic Composition Influences the Health-Promoting Potential of Bee-Pollen
Open AccessArticle

Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Bee Pollen with Other Bee Products

1
Faculty of Natural Sciences, Instrumental Analysis Open Access Centre, Vytautas Magnus University, LT-44404 Kaunas, Lithuania
2
Institute of Metrology, Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas LT-51368, Lithuania
3
Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Instituto av.1, LT-58344 Akademija, Kėdainiai District, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biomolecules 2019, 9(12), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/biom9120819
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 29 November 2019 / Published: 3 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pollen as Food and Feed)
The aim of this study was to compare the physichochemical composition of various bee products, namely, bee pollen, beebread, propolis, honey, and royal jelly. The samples (37 out of 53) were collected in Lithuania, several samples from other Europe countries (Italy, Denmark, Sweden, Slovakia, Poland, Spain, Republic of Malta, The Netherlands, Latvia, Ukraine) were used for comparison. Various quantities, such as pH, electrical conductivity, oxidation-reduction potential, NaCl content, refraction index, Brix value, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content and antiradical activity were measured. Together with the mentioned, the content of micro- and macroelements (As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sr, V and Zn), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy absorption spectra were analysed. To our knowledge, the literature data about comprehensive comparison of various characteristics of bee products are scarce. Also, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study revealing mineral content in Lithuanian bee pollen, beebread and royal jelly. The study exposed that bee pollen not only showed the highest values of pH, electrical conductivity and content of soluble solids, but also distinguished from the other samples by the highest flavonoid content (up to 48.3 mg/10 g), the absence of Cr, the presence of Co (0.011–0.100 mg/kg) and Sr (0.73–5.37 mg/kg) and the highest content of Ca (997–2455 mg/kg) and Mg (644–1004 mg/kg). Hierarchical clustering analysis was applied to group the tested samples according to the physicochemical analysis results and mineral content. The clustering analysis revealed that bee pollen formed separate group with the highest distance from the other samples in both cases.
Keywords: bee products; minerals; oxidation-reduction potential; conductivity; hierarchical cluster analysis; antioxidant activity bee products; minerals; oxidation-reduction potential; conductivity; hierarchical cluster analysis; antioxidant activity
MDPI and ACS Style

Adaškevičiūtė, V.; Kaškonienė, V.; Kaškonas, P.; Barčauskaitė, K.; Maruška, A. Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Bee Pollen with Other Bee Products. Biomolecules 2019, 9, 819.

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