This review intends to rationalize the knowledge related to the aroma of grapes and to the aroma of wine with specific origin in molecules formed in grapes. The actual flavor of grapes is formed by the few free aroma molecules already found in the pulp and in the skin, plus by those aroma molecules quickly formed by enzymatic/catalytic reactions. The review covers key aroma components of aromatic grapes, raisins and raisinized grapes, and the aroma components responsible from green and vegetal notes. This knowledge is used to explain the flavor properties of neutral grapes. The aroma potential of grape is the consequence of five different systems/pools of specific aroma precursors that during fermentation and/or aging, release wine varietal aroma. In total, 27 relevant wine aroma compounds can be considered that proceed from grape specific precursors. Some of them are immediately formed during fermentation, while some others require long aging time to accumulate. Precursors are glycosides, glutathionyl and cysteinyl conjugates, and other non-volatile molecules.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited