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Open AccessArticle

Salivary Metabolome and Soccer Match: Challenges for Understanding Exercise induced Changes

1
Department of Chemical Science and Technologies, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
2
IRBM S.p.A., 00071 Pomezia, Italy
3
Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
4
Department of Clinical Sciences and Translational Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(7), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9070141
Received: 1 June 2019 / Revised: 1 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 11 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Metabonomics)
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Abstract

Saliva samples of seventeen soccer players were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance before and after an official match. Two different ways of normalizing data are discussed, using total proteins and total metabolite concentrations. Changes in markers related to energy, hydration status, amino acids and other compounds were found. The limits and advantages of using saliva to define the systemic responses to exercise are examined, both in terms of data normalization and interpretation, and the time that the effect lasts in this biofluid, which is shorter to that commonly observed in blood. The heterogeneous nature and different timing of the exercise developed by players also plays an important role in the metabolic changes that can be measured. Our work focuses mainly on three different aspects: The effect that time sampling has on the observed effect, the type of normalization that is necessary to perform in order to cope with changes in water content, and the metabolic response that can be observed using saliva. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; sport metabolomics; NMR; exercise; saliva; energy metabolism; hydration status metabolomics; sport metabolomics; NMR; exercise; saliva; energy metabolism; hydration status
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Pitti, E.; Petrella, G.; Di Marino, S.; Summa, V.; Perrone, M.; D’Ottavio, S.; Bernardini, A.; Cicero, D.O. Salivary Metabolome and Soccer Match: Challenges for Understanding Exercise induced Changes. Metabolites 2019, 9, 141.

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