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Marine Algae Metabolites as Promising Therapeutics for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS

1
Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, Somov Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Sel’skaya Street, 1, 690087 Vladivostok, Russia
2
G.B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pr. 100-letiya Vladivostoka, 159, 690022 Vladivostok, Russia
3
Far Eastern Federal University, School of Biomedicine, Bldg. M25 FEFU Campus, Ajax Bay, Russky Isl., 690922 Vladivostok, Russia
4
Pacific State Medical University, Ostryakova Ave, 2, 690002 Vladivostok, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metabolites 2019, 9(5), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/metabo9050087
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 18 April 2019 / Accepted: 26 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seaweeds Metabolites)
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Abstract

This review presents an analysis of works devoted to the anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of algae metabolites—sulfated polysaccharides (fucoidans, carrageenans), lectins, laminarans, and polyphenols. Despite the presence of a significant number of antiretroviral drugs, the development of new therapeutic and prophylactic agents against this infection remains very urgent problem. This is due to the variability of HIV, the absence of an animal model (except monkeys) and natural immunity to this virus and the toxicity of therapeutic agents and their high cost. In this regard, the need for new therapeutic approaches and broad-spectrum drugs, which in addition to antiviral effects can have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects, and to which the minimum resistance of HIV strains would be formed. These requirements meet the biologically active substances of marine algae. The results of experimental and clinical studies conducted in vitro and in vivo are presented, and the issues of the anti-HIV activity of these compounds are considered depending on their structural features. On the whole, the presented data prove the high efficiency of seaweed metabolites and justify the possibility of their use as a potential basis for the development of new drugs with a wide spectrum of activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine algae (red, brown, green) metabolites; sulfated polysaccharides; lectins; laminarans; polyphenols; HIV/AIDS; anti-HIV activity marine algae (red, brown, green) metabolites; sulfated polysaccharides; lectins; laminarans; polyphenols; HIV/AIDS; anti-HIV activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Besednova, N.N.; Zvyagintseva, T.N.; Kuznetsova, T.A.; Makarenkova, I.D.; Smolina, T.P.; Fedyanina, L.N.; Kryzhanovsky, S.P.; Zaporozhets, T.S. Marine Algae Metabolites as Promising Therapeutics for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS. Metabolites 2019, 9, 87.

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