Examination of the Protection Offered by Current Accessibility Acts and Guidelines to People with Disabilities in Using Information Technology Devices
2. IT Interaction Disability and Framework
2.1. Introduction to ITID
2.2. Task–Interface–Context Framework
3. Literature Review on Accessibility Acts/Guidelines/Standards
3.1. Accessibility Acts
3.2. Accessibility Guidelines
3.3. Accessibility Standard
4. Analysis of Accessibility Acts and Guidelines from the UX Perspective
4.1. Analyzing Provisions Related to IT Devices/Services
4.2. Classification of ITID According to Regulations
5.1. ITID from the Task’s Perspective
5.2. ITID from the Perspective of UIEs
5.3. ITID from the Context Perspective
“I cannot use some programs (e.g., iTunes in iPhone) because it is too difficult to learn.”
“I want to use the voiceover function, but it is too difficult for me to learn how to use it.”
“Even though I am a person with low vision, I remember the layout of menus and the sequence of menus first.”
Conflicts of Interest
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|A.||Significant difficulties that make the use of an IT device impossible, although people try their best and spend a long time trying to use it|
|B.||Significant difficulties that make interactions with an IT device impossible, although people use a specific type of assistive technology to improve the accessibility of an IT device|
|C.||Significant difficulties that cannot be overcome by people without other people’s assistance while using IT devices|
|D.||Significant difficulties that cause people to stop trying to learn how to use IT devices despite receiving help or instruction from other users|
|E.||Significant difficulties that make people unwilling to use IT devices|
|ITID Types||Relevant Disability Types|
|ITID on sensing||sensory disability|
|ITID on cognition||specific learning disability, digital illiteracy, intellectual disability|
|ITID on emotion||emotional disability|
|ITID on action||physical disability, speech disorder, language disorder|
|sensing||notice, search, receive||d110~d129,|
|cognition||recognize, understand, manage, learn, decide, remember, engage||d130–d159, d160–d179 d310–d329|
|emotion||enjoy, challenge, like, approve||-|
|action for information interaction||activate, edit, choose, input data, create, eliminate, control, manipulate, exchange||d330–d349, d350–d369|
|action for physical device setting||position, connect, grasp||d430, d440|
|hardware||user input, main body, system output||-|
|software||information item||visual information||-|
|Category||Context Factors||ICF Code|
|user||profile, preference, previous experience, status, activity, location||-|
|other people||communication media, relationship, device, context||eE310~e360|
|environment||physical surroundings, technical surroundings, time||e125|
|device||distance, status, charge, brand, function||-|
|Category||Title of Standard||Published||Contents|
|Act||21st CVAA (21st Communications and Video Accessibility Act) ||2010, the United States||Accessibility rights pertaining to modern IT devices, which include advanced communications services (e.g., text messaging, e-mailing, and videos)|
|Section 508 (The Rehabilitation Act) ||1973, United States||Accessibility rights pertaining to IT devices that are from a Federal Agency (e.g., web sites, software, computers)|
|Section 255 (The Telecommunications Act) ||1996, United States||Accessibility rights pertaining to telecommunications equipment and services (e.g., telephones, answering machines, and fax machines)|
|European Accessibility Act ||2015, Europe||Accessibility rights pertaining to IT devices products, services, and infrastructures in Europe|
|Guideline||Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1 ||2018||Guidelines that provide a single standard for web content accessibility for people with disabilities|
|Accessibility on iOS [35,36]||Apple||Guidelines to be considered for accessibility when designing or developing on the iOS platform|
|Android Accessibility Developer Guidelines [37,38]||Guidelines to be considered in terms of accessibility when designing or developing programs on the Android platform|
|Samsung Accessibility UX Design Guide ||Samsung||Guidelines to consider critical accessibility-related issues for UX designers|
|The BBC Standards and Guidelines for Mobile Accessibility ||BBC||Accessibility guidelines related to mobile web content, hybrid, and native applications with example codes for implementation in HTML, Android, and iOS and steps for testing|
|ISO Standard||Guidelines for standards developers to address the needs of older persons and persons with disabilities ||2001||It summarizes the requirements for usability and accessibility of the elderly and people with disabilities and analyzes the aspects to be considered when designing the actual product and service|
|Ergonomics of human-system interaction—Part 20: Accessibility guidelines for information/communication technology (ICT) equipment and services ||2008||Guidelines to improve the accessibility of ICT equipment and services for use at work, in the home, and in mobile and public environments|
|Information technology—Accessibility considerations for people with disabilities—Part 1: User needs ||2009||Division of user requirements into 16 types, and summarization of detailed requirements for specific disabilities (blind, low vision, deaf, hard of hearing, physical disabilities, and cognitive/language/learning disabilities)|
|Information technology—Accessibility considerations for people with disabilities—Part 2: Standards inventory ||2009||Identifies a collection of standards that satisfies the needs of people with disabilities from part 1|
|Information technology—Accessibility considerations for people with disabilities—Part 3: Guidance on user needs mapping ||2009||Guidance on the mapping of a set of user needs with the provisions of a particular standard, technical report, or set of guidelines|
|Information technology—W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 ||2012||Implemented WCAG 2.0 as an ISO standard to ensure its utilization by more developers, policy-makers, and managers|
|Ergonomics—Accessible design—Accessibility of information presented on visual displays of small consumer products ||2020||Designed guidance on the accessibility of visually presented information on small displays for older people and people with disabilities|
|Ergonomics—Accessible design—Controls of consumer products ||2020||Accessibility requirements and recommendations for controlling consumer products for older people and people with disabilities|
|Category||Task||Number of ITID||Relative Provision||Examples|
|Sensing||Notice||4||W 4||[W] Changes in context are initiated by user request alone or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes|
|Search||3||W 3||[W] In content implemented using markup languages, the purpose of User Interface Components, icons, and regions can be programmatically determined|
|Receive||81||R 36, C 3, E 9, W 33||[E] When the product uses color to convey information, indicate an action, require a response or identify elements, it shall provide an alternative to color|
|Cognition||Recognize||16||R 2, E 1, W 13||[W] Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently|
|Understand||7||W 7||[W] A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available|
|Manage||7||R 2, E 1, W 4||[W] Information about the user’s location within a set of Web pages is available|
|Action for information interaction||Activate||11||R 1, C 5, W 5||[C] Function that allows the user to enable or disable the display of closed captioning|
|Edit||3||R 1, C 2||[C] Function that allows the user to access and change configuration or setup options|
|Choose||10||C 8, W 2||[C] Function that allows the user to select channelsand programs|
|Input data||7||R 3, E 1, W 3||[R] Where provided, numeric keys shall be arranged in a 12-key ascending or descending keypad layout|
|Control||14||R 5, C 5, E 2, W 2||[C] Function that allows the user to adjust the volume and to mute or un-mute the volume|
|Manipulate||4||R 1, E 1, W 2||[R] Where a manual mode of operation is provided, ICT shall provide at least one mode of operation that does not require fine motor control or simultaneous manual operations|
|Exchange||8||R 4, E 3, W 1||[R] Where provided, biometrics shall not be the only means for user identification or control|
|Action for physical device setting||Position||7||R 5, E 1, W 1||[E] The product shall avoid modes of operation requiring extensive reach and great strength|
|Connect||3||R 1, C 1, E 1||[C] Function that allows the user to select their preferred input source|
|Grasp||2||R 1, E 1||[E] The product shall avoid modes of operation requiring extensive reach and great strength|
|Group||UIE||Number of ITID||Relative Provision||Examples|
|Hardware||User input||8||R 4, E 2, W2||[W] Web content does not restrict use of input modalities available on a platform|
|Main body||2||R 1, W 1||[W] Functionality that can be operated by device motion or user motion can also be operated by user interface components|
|System output||3||R 1, W 2||[R] Where stationary ICT provides one or more display screens, at least one of each type of display screen shall be visible from a point located 40 inches (1015 mm) above the floor space where the display screen is viewed|
|Software||Informational item||Visual information||74||R 25, C 13, E 6, W 30||[R] Function that allows the user to display channel or program information|
|Auditory information||23||R 13, E 4, W 6||[W] Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media|
|Tactile information||2||R 1, E 1||[R] Tactilely Discernible. Input controls shall be operable by touch and tactilely discernible without activation|
|Not specific||26||R 2, W 24||[W] Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose|
|Functional item||37||R 10, C 10, E 3, W 14||[C] Function that allows the user to adjust the volume and to mute or un-mute the volume|
|Structural item||3||R 1, E 1, W 1||[W] Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user|
|Primary Category||Context Factor||Number of ITID||Relative Provision||Examples|
|User||User profile||2||R 1, E 1||[R] Where provided, biometrics shall not be the only means for user identification or control|
|Environment||Other device||2||R 1, C 1||[R] Where data connections used for input and output are provided, at least one of each type of connection shall conform to industry standard non-proprietary formats|
|Assistive products||1||E 1||[E] It shall provide for flexible magnification, brightness and contrast for communication, information and operation, as well as ensure interoperability with programs and assistive devices to navigate the interface|
|Device||AT function||4||R 2, E 2||[R] Software shall interoperate with assistive technology|
|Device status||1||W 1||[W] Content does not restrict its view and operation to a single display orientation, such as portrait or landscape, unless a specific display orientation is essential|
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Kim, H.K.; Park, J. Examination of the Protection Offered by Current Accessibility Acts and Guidelines to People with Disabilities in Using Information Technology Devices. Electronics 2020, 9, 742. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050742
Kim HK, Park J. Examination of the Protection Offered by Current Accessibility Acts and Guidelines to People with Disabilities in Using Information Technology Devices. Electronics. 2020; 9(5):742. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050742Chicago/Turabian Style
Kim, Hyun K., and Jaehyun Park. 2020. "Examination of the Protection Offered by Current Accessibility Acts and Guidelines to People with Disabilities in Using Information Technology Devices" Electronics 9, no. 5: 742. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050742