Power-inversion (PI) adaptive arrays are widely used in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers for interference mitigation. The effects of element patterns on the performance of PI adaptive arrays are investigated in this paper. To this end, the performance of adaptive arrays is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations, using CST Microwave Studio (Dassault Systems, Vélizy-Villacoublay, France) to calculate the radiation patterns of circular microstrip elements which are used to compute the adaptive weight and the adaptive array gain. It is shown that the performance of PI adaptive arrays is mainly dependent on the gain pattern of the reference antenna element rather than the non-reference elements because the algorithm essentially pushes the elements into an unequal position. Furthermore, the results show that the impact of mutual coupling on the performance of the antenna array can be associated with the radiation patterns of the reference element, which is helpful in selecting the optimum reference element without increasing computational complexity, especially for small GNSS arrays.
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