In this paper, we illustrate our work on improving the accessibility of Cyber–Physical Systems (CPS), presenting a study on human–robot interaction where the end-users are either deaf or hearing-impaired people. Current trends in robotic designs include devices with robotic arms and hands capable of performing manipulation and grasping tasks. This paper focuses on how these devices can be used for a different purpose, which is that of enabling robotic communication via sign language. For the study, several tests and questionnaires are run to check and measure how end-users feel about interpreting sign language represented by a humanoid robotic assistant as opposed to subtitles on a screen. Stemming from this dichotomy, dactylology, basic vocabulary representation and end-user satisfaction are the main topics covered by a delivered form, in which additional commentaries are valued and taken into consideration for further decision taking regarding robot-human interaction. The experiments were performed using TEO, a household companion humanoid robot developed at the University Carlos III de Madrid (UC3M), via representations in Spanish Sign Language (LSE), and a total of 16 deaf and hearing-impaired participants.
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