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Electronics 2016, 5(3), 45;

Wearable Multimodal Skin Sensing for the Diabetic Foot

Department of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, University Rd, SO17 1BJ Southampton, UK
Inst. of Developmental Sciences — Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, SO16 6YD Southampton, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Simon J. Cox and Steven J. Johnston
Received: 29 January 2016 / Revised: 27 May 2016 / Accepted: 4 July 2016 / Published: 28 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Raspberry Pi Technology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2266 KB, uploaded 28 July 2016]   |  


Ulceration of the diabetic foot is currently difficult to detect reliably in a timely manner causing undue suffering and cost. Current best practice is for daily monitoring by those living with diabetes coupled to scheduled monitoring by the incumbent care provider. Although some metrics have proven useful in the detection or prediction of ulceration, no single metric can currently be relied upon for diagnosis. We have developed a prototype multivariate extensible sensor platform with which we demonstrate the ability to gather acceleration, rotation, galvanic skin response, environmental temperature, humidity, force, skin temperature and bioimpedance signals in real time, for later analysis, utilising low cost Raspberry Pi and Arduino devices. We demonstrate the utility of the Raspberry Pi computer in research which is of particular interest to this issue of electronics—Raspberry Pi edition. We conclude that the hardware presented shows potential as an adaptable research tool capable of gathering synchronous data over multiple sensor modalities. This research tool will be utilised to optimise sensor selection, placement and algorithm development prior to translation into a sock, insole or platform diagnostic device at a later date. The combination of a number of clinically relevant parameters is expected to provide greater understanding of tissue state in the foot but requires further volunteer testing and analysis beyond the scope of this paper which will be reported in due course. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; skin; monitoring; multi-sensor; remote sensing; shoe; wearable; evaluation; Raspberry Pi; Arduino diabetes; skin; monitoring; multi-sensor; remote sensing; shoe; wearable; evaluation; Raspberry Pi; Arduino

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Coates, J.; Chipperfield, A.; Clough, G. Wearable Multimodal Skin Sensing for the Diabetic Foot. Electronics 2016, 5, 45.

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