Next Article in Journal
Halal Cosmetics: A Review on Ingredients, Production, and Testing Methods
Next Article in Special Issue
The Secrets of Beautiful Hair: Why is it Flexible and Elastic?
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Characterization of New Topical Hydrogels Based on Alpha Lipoic Acid—Hydrotalcite Hybrids
Previous Article in Special Issue
Known and Unknown Features of Hair Cuticle Structure: A Brief Review
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Unique Hair Properties that Emerge from Combinations of Multiple Races

R&D—Development Research, Kao Corporation, 2-1-3, Bunka, Sumida-ku, Tokyo 131-8501, Japan
Cosmetics 2019, 6(2), 36;
Received: 13 May 2019 / Revised: 18 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 21 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advance in Hair Science and Hair Care Technologies)
PDF [2390 KB, uploaded 21 June 2019]


The fusion of ethnicity in human populations is becoming increasingly common, so the conventional definition of ethnicity is going to become deficient. The aim of this study was to investigate the hair properties which emerge from combinations of multiple races. Hair fibers collected from mixed-race subjects were investigated and classifications of hair shape as well as measurements of thickness, ellipticity and surface damage were carried out. The results show that hair shapes varied widely: straight hair and very curly hair often existed together on the heads of individuals with mixed ethnicity. Curly hair tended to be thicker than loose wavy hair. As for damage to the hair surface, the hairs of mixed-race subjects showed a very unique property in that they were much more severely damaged near the root (the proximal end) than the hairs of monoracial subjects. The hair shape (curly or loose wavy) was not related to the level of damage. The severe damage near the proximal end is thought to be caused by entanglement, due to the presence of various curl phases. This study reports the unique characteristics of hairs of subjects with mixed ethnicity, which have never been noted in the previous studies on subjects with a monoracial background. View Full-Text
Keywords: hair; ethnicity; mixed; hair damage; hair shape hair; ethnicity; mixed; hair damage; hair shape

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Takahashi, T. Unique Hair Properties that Emerge from Combinations of Multiple Races. Cosmetics 2019, 6, 36.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Cosmetics EISSN 2079-9284 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top