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Design of Prototype Formulations for In Vitro Dermal Delivery of the Natural Antioxidant Ferulic Acid Based on Ethosomal Colloidal Systems

1
Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Ciencias Farmacéuticas y Alimentarias, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín 050010, Colombia
2
Departamento de Ciencias Farmacéuticas, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Icesi, Calle 18 No. 122–135, Cali 76003, Colombia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cosmetics 2019, 6(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics6010005
Received: 17 November 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 19 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Delivery Systems for Cosmetics)
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Abstract

Ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring antioxidant, is currently used to prevent skin damage. However, FA is very unstable upon exposure to UV radiation and other factors, which decrease its shelf-life and effectiveness. Therefore, in this work, different prototypes of ethosomal FA vesicular systems were designed and developed to provide protection against different environmental factors. A two-level fractional factorial design was employed using particle size, zeta potential (ZP), incorporation efficiency (EE), polydispersity index (PDI), and the existing relationship between length and width of vesicles or aspect ratio (AR) as response variables. The optimal formulation was characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared analysis, UV-Vis absorption, in-vitro permeability, and thermal degradation studies. Depending on the processing conditions, the EE and particle size varied between 3 and 87% and 470 and 1208 nm, respectively. Membrane studies indicated that the free product released ~4.8% of the compound, whereas the encapsulated material released ~7.1%. Because of their enhanced permeability, ethosomes could be a promising alternative for the topical administration of antioxidants to reduce the oxidative damage caused by solar radiation. View Full-Text
Keywords: ethosomes; ferulic acid; antioxidant; dermal diffusion; chemical stabilization ethosomes; ferulic acid; antioxidant; dermal diffusion; chemical stabilization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Londoño, C.A.; Rojas, J.; Yarce, C.J.; Salamanca, C.H. Design of Prototype Formulations for In Vitro Dermal Delivery of the Natural Antioxidant Ferulic Acid Based on Ethosomal Colloidal Systems. Cosmetics 2019, 6, 5.

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