Crystallographic Texture of the Mineral Matter in the Bivalve Shells of Gryphaea dilatata Sowerby, 1816
- Determination of the crystallographic texture sharpness of the G. dilatata mineral substance;
- Assessment of the influence of various habitat conditions and diagenetic processes on the texture;
- Reveal the crystallographic texture dependence on the valve shape;
- Reveal the texture similarity in two representatives of the Gryphaeidae family;
- A comparison of recent and fossil valves of O. edulis;
- Reveal the common features of the crystallographic texture in thick-walled shells.
2. Materials and Methods
3.1. Determination of the Shells’ Geologic Age
3.2. Analysis of the Diagenesis Features
3.3. Features of Crystallographic Texture
- For the first time, the complete pole figures of G. dilatata shells were measured using time-of-flight neutron diffraction.
- The studied G. dilatata lived at considerable distances from each other. The mollusks likely did not coincide in their time of habitation. This means that their habitats were different.
- G. dilatata from the three localities almost do not differ in their crystallographic texture maximum sharpness, i.e., the habitat conditions and fossilization did not affect the texture, and it can be considered as a very stable feature.
- The largest differences of the crystallographic texture sharpness have been noted for the calcite pole figure (0006). Therefore, it is possible to reveal the greatest variability by comparing these figures’ sharpness for different objects.
- The features of G. dilatata valve recrystallization, which affect the crystallographic texture, were revealed for the first time using time-of-flight neutron diffraction. They were reflected in the pole figure isolines, but do not appear in the values of maximum sharpness, since the entire valve was not recrystallized and the pole density was low in the recrystallized part. The maximum texture sharpness was determined by the non-recrystallized part of the valve.
- It has been established that for one mollusk, the crystallographic texture of the left and right valves of various shapes differs: to a greater extent by the pole figures’ isoline patterns, to a lesser extent by the values of maximum sharpness.
- The calcite pole figures and the values of the maximum sharpness of the G. dilatata and O. edulis left valves are similar. The pole figures isoline patterns and values of the pole density maximum of G. dilatata right valves are similar, and along the same parameters as the P. mirabilis left valve. All of these species are characterized by either an axial pole figure (or close to it) or a figure with an arcuately-curved sharpness maximum. Transitions between them are found for the recent O. edulis. It is possible that these pole figures with have isoline patterns that are characteristic of thick-walled shells.
- The thick-walled valves of G. dilatata, O. edulis, and P. mirabilis have small values of maximum texture sharpness. They are very close for these mollusks. Perhaps, it is a characteristic feature of all thick-walled valves and reflects an adaptation to shell construction.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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Pakhnevich, A.; Nikolayev, D.; Lychagina, T. Crystallographic Texture of the Mineral Matter in the Bivalve Shells of Gryphaea dilatata Sowerby, 1816. Biology 2022, 11, 1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11091300
Pakhnevich A, Nikolayev D, Lychagina T. Crystallographic Texture of the Mineral Matter in the Bivalve Shells of Gryphaea dilatata Sowerby, 1816. Biology. 2022; 11(9):1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11091300Chicago/Turabian Style
Pakhnevich, Alexey, Dmitry Nikolayev, and Tatiana Lychagina. 2022. "Crystallographic Texture of the Mineral Matter in the Bivalve Shells of Gryphaea dilatata Sowerby, 1816" Biology 11, no. 9: 1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology11091300