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Fibers, Volume 2, Issue 4 (December 2014) , Pages 264-317

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Open AccessArticle
Electrospun Zeolite/Cellulose Acetate Fibers for Ion Exchange of Pb2+
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 308-317; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040308 - 05 Dec 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5237
Abstract
The ion exchange capability of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers containing zeolite A nanoparticles is reported. Solid and porous CA fibers were used to make a zeolite-embedded filter paper, which was then used to ion exchange Na+ with Cu2+ and Pb [...] Read more.
The ion exchange capability of electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) fibers containing zeolite A nanoparticles is reported. Solid and porous CA fibers were used to make a zeolite-embedded filter paper, which was then used to ion exchange Na+ with Cu2+ and Pb2+. The composite Linde Type A (LTA) zeolite CA fibers exchanged 0.39 mmol/g more Pb2+ than LTA nanoparticles in the solid CA fibers. These fibers could provide a simple and effective method for heavy metal ion removal in water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Cellulose Fibers Coated with Carbon Nanotube Networks
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 295-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040295 - 13 Nov 2014
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 4606
Abstract
Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning [...] Read more.
Smart multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-coated cellulose fibers with a unique sensing ability were manufactured by a simple dip coating process. The formation of electrically-conducting MWCNT networks on cellulose mono- and multi-filament fiber surfaces was confirmed by electrical resistance measurements and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. The interaction between MWCNT networks and cellulose fiber was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. The piezoresistivity of these fibers for strain sensing was investigated. The MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers exhibited a unique linear strain-dependent electrical resistance change up to 18% strain, with good reversibility and repeatability. In addition, the sensing behavior of these fibers to volatile molecules (including vapors of methanol, ethanol, acetone, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran) was investigated. The results revealed a rapid response, high sensitivity and good reproducibility for these chemical vapors. Besides, they showed good selectivity to different vapors. It is suggested that the intrinsic physical and chemical features of cellulose fiber, well-formed MWCNT networks and favorable MWCNT-cellulose interaction caused the unique and excellent sensing ability of the MWCNT-coated cellulose fibers, which have the potential to be used as smart materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Developing Cotton Fibers by Confocal Raman Microscopy
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 285-294; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040285 - 27 Oct 2014
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3731
Abstract
Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool [...] Read more.
Cellulose deposition in developing cotton fibers has been studied previously with analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Recent technological developments in instrumentation have made Raman microscopy emerge as an extraordinary analytical tool in biological and plant research. The advantage of using confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) resides in the lateral spatial resolution and in the fact that Raman spectroscopy provides not only chemical composition information, but also structural information. Cross-sections of cotton fibers harvested at different developmental stages were studied with CRM. The Raman bands assigned to cellulose were analyzed. The results of this study indicate that CRM can be used as a tool to study cellulose deposition in cotton fibers and could provide useful information on cellulose deposition during cotton fiber development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis and Characterization of Novel PVA/SiO2-TiO2 Hybrid Fibers
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 275-284; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040275 - 21 Oct 2014
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3871
Abstract
Hybrid sols of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Silicon oxide-titanium oxide (SiO2-TiO2) were prepared with tetraethoxylsilane and tetrabutyl titanate as precursor using Sol-Gel method. PVA/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid fibers were prepared by drawing from the hybrid sols using dip-coating method [...] Read more.
Hybrid sols of poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/Silicon oxide-titanium oxide (SiO2-TiO2) were prepared with tetraethoxylsilane and tetrabutyl titanate as precursor using Sol-Gel method. PVA/SiO2-TiO2 hybrid fibers were prepared by drawing from the hybrid sols using dip-coating method and aging treatment. The spinnability of hybrid sols was investigated. Spinnable time (t) and spinnable length (l) of hybrid sols increased with either the PVA content or the molar ratio of SiO2 and TiO2. The hybrid fibers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet Visible Spectrometry (UV-Vis) and (Thermo-gravimetric Analysis) TGA. FT-IR results suggested that PVA was linked with (SiO2-TiO2) network by chemical bonds. SEM measurements indicated that when the fibers arrives the maximum spinning length, the diameter of the fibers was about 50 μm, and the whole system was homogeneous. XRD results revealed that the crystallinity of hybrid fibers was decreased distinctly. UV-Vis measurements confirmed that the shielding properties to Ultraviolet (UV) were greatly improved with titania filled in the hybrid fibers. TG measurements suggested that the hybrid fibers show better resistance to heat than pure PVA fibers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Examinations for the Identification of U.S. Domestic and International Cotton Fibers by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Fibers 2014, 2(4), 264-274; https://doi.org/10.3390/fib2040264 - 29 Sep 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3356
Abstract
Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile [...] Read more.
Cotton is and has been a large cash crop in the United States and abroad for many years. Part of the widespread interest and utility of this product is due to its attractive chemical and physical properties for use in textiles. The textile industry could benefit from the presentation of a quick, reliable method to classify U.S. from foreign cottons so that the appropriate tariffs can be levied for non-American cottons. In addition, there is some interest in avoiding cotton identity theft. Thus, an accurate and precise instrumental method would be of interest to correctly identify the country of origin of cotton. This study provides an analytical method to identify domestic and foreign cotton fibers using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis (PCA). Samples from American cottons were evaluated along with a representative amount of international samples. The results provide a proof of concept that indicates that PCA analysis can be used to separate the respective domestic and foreign cotton groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Fibers)
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