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Functionalization of Ceramic Coatings for Enhancing Integration in Osteoporotic Bone: A Systematic Review

1
Laboratory of Preclinical and Surgical Studies, IRCCS—Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
2
Laboratory of Biomechanic and Innovative Technology, IRCCS—Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Coatings 2019, 9(5), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9050312
Received: 11 April 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 9 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surfaces Modification and Analysis for Innovative Biomaterials)
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Abstract

Background: The success of reconstructive orthopaedic surgery strongly depends on the mechanical and biological integration between the prosthesis and the host bone tissue. Progressive population ageing with increased frequency of altered bone metabolism conditions requires new strategies for ensuring an early implant fixation and long-term stability. Ceramic materials and ceramic-based coatings, owing to the release of calcium phosphate and to the precipitation of a biological apatite at the bone-implant interface, are able to promote a strong bonding between the host bone and the implant. Methods: The aim of the present systematic review is the analysis of the existing literature on the functionalization strategies for improving the implant osteointegration in osteoporotic bone and their relative translation into the clinical practice. The review process, conducted on two electronic databases, identified 47 eligible preclinical studies and 5 clinical trials. Results: Preclinical data analysis showed that functionalization with both organic and inorganic molecules usually improves osseointegration in the osteoporotic condition, assessed mainly in rodent models. Clinical studies, mainly retrospective, have tested no functionalization strategies. Registered trademarks materials have been investigated and there is lack of information about the micro- or nano- topography of ceramics. Conclusions: Ceramic materials/coatings functionalization obtained promising results in improving implant osseointegration even in osteoporotic conditions but preclinical evidence has not been fully translated to clinical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: coatings; ceramic materials; functionalization; osteointegration; osteoporosis; bone metabolism; animal model coatings; ceramic materials; functionalization; osteointegration; osteoporosis; bone metabolism; animal model
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Sartori, M.; Maglio, M.; Tschon, M.; Nicoli Aldini, N.; Visani, A.; Fini, M. Functionalization of Ceramic Coatings for Enhancing Integration in Osteoporotic Bone: A Systematic Review. Coatings 2019, 9, 312.

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