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Characteristics and Management of Candidaemia Episodes in an Established Candida auris Outbreak
Review

Antifungal Resistance in Candida auris: Molecular Determinants

1
Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de Ixtapaluca, Estado de México, 56530 Mexico City, Mexico
2
Departamento de Ecología de Agentes Patógenos, Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”, Ciudad de México, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico
3
Unidad de Micología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico
4
Sección de Micología, Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”, Ciudad de México, 14080 Mexico City, Mexico
5
Departamento de Micología, Servicio de Dermatología, Hospital General “Dr. Eduardo Liceaga”, Ciudad de México, 06720 Mexico City, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(9), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090568
Received: 7 August 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 29 August 2020 / Published: 2 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis,Resistance and Treatment of Infections by Candida auris)
Since Candida auris integrates strains resistant to multiple antifungals, research has been conducted focused on knowing which molecular mechanisms are involved. This review aims to summarize the results obtained in some of these studies. A search was carried out by consulting websites and online databases. The analysis indicates that most C. auris strains show higher resistance to fluconazole, followed by amphotericin B, and less resistance to 5-fluorocytosine and caspofungin. In C. auris, antifungal resistance to amphotericin B has been linked to an overexpression of several mutated ERG genes that lead to reduced ergosterol levels; fluconazole resistance is mostly explained by mutations identified in the ERG11 gene, as well as a higher number of copies of this gene and the overexpression of efflux pumps. For 5-fluorocytosine, it is hypothesized that the resistance is due to mutations in the FCY2, FCY1, and FUR1 genes. Resistance to caspofungin has been associated with a mutation in the FKS1 gene. Finally, resistance to each antifungal is closely related to the type of clade to which the strain belongs. View Full-Text
Keywords: antifungal resistance; Candida auris; amphotericin B; 5-fluorocytosine; caspofungin; fluconazole antifungal resistance; Candida auris; amphotericin B; 5-fluorocytosine; caspofungin; fluconazole
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MDPI and ACS Style

Frías-De-León, M.G.; Hernández-Castro, R.; Vite-Garín, T.; Arenas, R.; Bonifaz, A.; Castañón-Olivares, L.; Acosta-Altamirano, G.; Martínez-Herrera, E. Antifungal Resistance in Candida auris: Molecular Determinants. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 568. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090568

AMA Style

Frías-De-León MG, Hernández-Castro R, Vite-Garín T, Arenas R, Bonifaz A, Castañón-Olivares L, Acosta-Altamirano G, Martínez-Herrera E. Antifungal Resistance in Candida auris: Molecular Determinants. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(9):568. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090568

Chicago/Turabian Style

Frías-De-León, María G., Rigoberto Hernández-Castro, Tania Vite-Garín, Roberto Arenas, Alexandro Bonifaz, Laura Castañón-Olivares, Gustavo Acosta-Altamirano, and Erick Martínez-Herrera. 2020. "Antifungal Resistance in Candida auris: Molecular Determinants" Antibiotics 9, no. 9: 568. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9090568

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