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Open AccessCommunication

Emergence of cfr-Mediated Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pig Carcasses

Bacterial Disease Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177 Hyeksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 39660, Korea
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Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 769; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110769
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 30 October 2020 / Published: 2 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance and Virulence Mechanisms)
Altogether, 2547 Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cattle (n = 382), pig (n = 1077), and chicken carcasses (n = 1088) during 2010–2017 were investigated for linezolid resistance and were further characterized using molecular methods. We identified linezolid resistance in only 2.3% of pig carcass isolates. The linezolid-resistant (LR) isolates presented resistance to multiple antimicrobials, including chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and tiamulin. Molecular investigation exhibited no mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA. Nevertheless, we found mutations in ribosomal proteins rplC (G121A) and rplD (C353T) in one and seven LR strains, respectively. All the LR isolates carried the multi-resistance gene cfr, and six of them co-carried the mecA gene. Additionally, all the LR isolates co-carried the phenicol exporter gene, fexA, and presented a high level of chloramphenicol resistance. LR S. aureus isolates represented 10 genotypes, including major genotypes ST433-t318, ST541-t034, ST5-t002, and ST9-t337. Staphylococcal enterotoxin and leukotoxin-encoding genes, alone or in combination, were detected in 68% of LR isolates. Isolates from different farms presented identical or different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. Collectively, toxigenic and LR S. aureus strains pose a crisis for public health. This study is the first to describe the mechanism of linezolid resistance in S. aureus isolated from food animal products in Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: carcass; cfr gene; fexA gene; linezolid; mutation; pig; public health; S. aureus carcass; cfr gene; fexA gene; linezolid; mutation; pig; public health; S. aureus
MDPI and ACS Style

Kang, H.Y.; Moon, D.C.; Mechesso, A.F.; Choi, J.-H.; Kim, S.-J.; Song, H.-J.; Kim, M.H.; Yoon, S.-S.; Lim, S.-K. Emergence of cfr-Mediated Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pig Carcasses. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 769.

AMA Style

Kang HY, Moon DC, Mechesso AF, Choi J-H, Kim S-J, Song H-J, Kim MH, Yoon S-S, Lim S-K. Emergence of cfr-Mediated Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pig Carcasses. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(11):769.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kang, Hee Y.; Moon, Dong C.; Mechesso, Abraham F.; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Su-Jeong; Song, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Mi H.; Yoon, Soon-Seek; Lim, Suk-Kyung. 2020. "Emergence of cfr-Mediated Linezolid Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Pig Carcasses" Antibiotics 9, no. 11: 769.

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