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Open AccessArticle

Oriented Cell Alignment Induced by a Nanostructured Titanium Surface Enhances Expression of Cell Differentiation Markers

Group of Cell Therapy and Tissue Engineering, Research Institute on Health Sciences (IUNICS), University of Balearic Islands, Ctra Valldemossa km 7.5, 07122 Palma, Spain
Balearic Islands Health Research Institute (IdISBa), 07120 Palma, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1661;
Received: 9 October 2019 / Revised: 6 November 2019 / Accepted: 18 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
A key factor for dental implant success is a good sealing between the implant surface and both soft (gum) and hard (bone) tissues. Surface nanotopography can modulate cell response through mechanotransduction. The main objective of this research was the development of nanostructured titanium (Ti) surfaces that promote both soft and hard tissue integration with potential application in dental implants. Nanostructured Ti surfaces were developed by electrochemical anodization—nanopores (NPs) and nanonets (NNs)—and characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, and contact angle analysis. In addition, nanoparticle release and apoptosis activation were analyzed on cell culture. NP surfaces showed nanoparticle release, which increased in vitro cell apoptosis. Primary human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were used to test cell adhesion, cytotoxicity, metabolic activity, and differentiation markers. Finally, cell orientation on the different surfaces was analyzed using a phalloidin staining. NN surfaces induced an oriented alignment of both cell types, leading in turn to an improved expression of differentiation markers. Our results suggest that NN structuration of Ti surfaces has great potential to be used for dental implant abutments to improve both soft and hard tissue integration. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanostructuration; mechanotransduction; nanonets; nanopores; implant–tissue integration nanostructuration; mechanotransduction; nanonets; nanopores; implant–tissue integration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Llopis-Grimalt, M.A.; Amengual-Tugores, A.M.; Monjo, M.; Ramis, J.M. Oriented Cell Alignment Induced by a Nanostructured Titanium Surface Enhances Expression of Cell Differentiation Markers. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1661.

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