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Open AccessArticle

Toxicological Assessment of ITER-Like Tungsten Nanoparticles Using an In Vitro 3D Human Airway Epithelium Model

1
CEA, SCBM, Université Paris Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2
Aix Marseille Univ, Avignon Université, CNRS, IRD, IMBE, 13005 Marseille, France
3
CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, France
4
CNRS, Aix Marseille Univ, IRD, INRA, Coll France, CEREGE, 13545, Aix en Provence, France
5
Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité; Laboratoire des Sciences des Procédés et des Matériaux, UPR 3407-CNRS, 99 avenue J.-B. Clément 93430 Villetaneuse, France
6
Université de Lyon, CNRS, Université Claude Bernard Lyon I, Institute of Analytical Sciences (ISA), UMR 5280, 5, rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
7
NIMBE, IRAMIS, Université Paris Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette CEDEX, France
8
Aix Marseille Univ, CEA, CNRS, BIAM, UMR7265, EIPM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1374; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101374
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 11 September 2019 / Accepted: 18 September 2019 / Published: 25 September 2019
The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is an international project aimed at the production of carbon-free energy through the use of thermonuclear fusion. During ITER operation, in case of a loss-of-vacuum-accident, tungsten nanoparticles (W-NPs) could potentially be released into the environment and induce occupational exposure via inhalation. W-NPs toxicity was evaluated on MucilAir™, a 3D in vitro cell model of the human airway epithelium. MucilAir™ was exposed for 24 h to metallic ITER-like milled W-NPs, tungstate (WO42−) and tungsten carbide cobalt particles alloy (WC-Co). Cytotoxicity and its reversibility were assessed using a kinetic mode up to 28 days after exposure. Epithelial tightness, metabolic activity and interleukin-8 release were also evaluated. Electron microscopy was performed to determine any morphological modification, while mass spectrometry allowed the quantification of W-NPs internalization and of W transfer through the MucilAir™. Our results underlined a decrease in barrier integrity, no effect on metabolic activity or cell viability and a transient increase in IL-8 secretion after exposure to ITER-like milled W-NPs. These effects were associated with W-transfer through the epithelium, but not with intracellular accumulation. We have shown that, under our experimental conditions, ITER-like milled W-NPs have a minor impact on the MucilAir™ in vitro model. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; tungsten; lung; MucilAir™; acute toxicity nanoparticles; tungsten; lung; MucilAir™; acute toxicity
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George, I.; Uboldi, C.; Bernard, E.; Sobrido, M.S.; Dine, S.; Hagège, A.; Vrel, D.; Herlin, N.; Rose, J.; Orsière, T.; Grisolia, C.; Rousseau, B.; Malard, V. Toxicological Assessment of ITER-Like Tungsten Nanoparticles Using an In Vitro 3D Human Airway Epithelium Model. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1374.

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