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Article

Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoflakes Coated with Glycol Chitosan, Propylene Glycol Alginate, and Polydopamine: Characterization and Cytotoxicity in Human Chondrocytes

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The BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 56127 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Excellence in Robotics & AI, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, 56127 Pisa, Italy
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Department of Chemistry and Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vanessa Valdiglesias
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2105; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082105
Received: 27 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 12 August 2021 / Published: 19 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Nanomaterials)
Recently, graphene and its derivatives have been extensively investigated for their interesting properties in many biomedical fields, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Nonetheless, graphene oxide (GO) and reduced GO (rGO) are still under investigation for improving their dispersibility in aqueous solutions and their safety in different cell types. This work explores the interaction of GO and rGO with different polymeric dispersants, such as glycol chitosan (GC), propylene glycol alginate (PGA), and polydopamine (PDA), and their effects on human chondrocytes. GO was synthesized using Hummer’s method, followed by a sonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) process, drying, and thermal reduction to obtain rGO. The flakes of GO and rGO exhibited an average lateral size of 8.8 ± 4.6 and 18.3 ± 8.5 µm, respectively. Their dispersibility and colloidal stability were investigated in the presence of the polymeric surfactants, resulting in an improvement in the suspension stability in terms of average size and polydispersity index over 1 h, in particular for PDA. Furthermore, cytotoxic effects induced by coated and uncoated GO and rGO on human chondrocytes at different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 µg/mL) were assessed through LDH assay. Results showed a concentration-dependent response, and the presence of PGA contributed to statistically decreasing the difference in the LDH activity with respect to the control. These results open the way to a potentially safer use of these nanomaterials in the fields of cartilage tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; human chondrocytes; cytotoxicity; glycol chitosan; propylene glycol alginate; polydopamine; LDH; polydispersity index graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; human chondrocytes; cytotoxicity; glycol chitosan; propylene glycol alginate; polydopamine; LDH; polydispersity index
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vannozzi, L.; Catalano, E.; Telkhozhayeva, M.; Teblum, E.; Yarmolenko, A.; Avraham, E.S.; Konar, R.; Nessim, G.D.; Ricotti, L. Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoflakes Coated with Glycol Chitosan, Propylene Glycol Alginate, and Polydopamine: Characterization and Cytotoxicity in Human Chondrocytes. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2105. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082105

AMA Style

Vannozzi L, Catalano E, Telkhozhayeva M, Teblum E, Yarmolenko A, Avraham ES, Konar R, Nessim GD, Ricotti L. Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoflakes Coated with Glycol Chitosan, Propylene Glycol Alginate, and Polydopamine: Characterization and Cytotoxicity in Human Chondrocytes. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(8):2105. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082105

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vannozzi, Lorenzo, Enrico Catalano, Madina Telkhozhayeva, Eti Teblum, Alina Yarmolenko, Efrat S. Avraham, Rajashree Konar, Gilbert D. Nessim, and Leonardo Ricotti. 2021. "Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanoflakes Coated with Glycol Chitosan, Propylene Glycol Alginate, and Polydopamine: Characterization and Cytotoxicity in Human Chondrocytes" Nanomaterials 11, no. 8: 2105. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082105

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